Santiago de Cuba

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Santiago de Cuba
Santiago de cuba al atardecer.jpg
Kintra Cuba
Province Santiago de Cuba
Established 1515
 • Total 1,023.8 km2 (395.3 sq mi)
Elevation 82 m (269 ft)
Population (2004)[1]
 • Tot 472,255
 • Density 461.3/km2 (1,195/sq mi)
Aurie code(s) +53-22

Santiago de Cuba is the seicont lairgest ceety o Cuba an caipital ceety o Santiago de Cuba Province in the sooth-eastren aurie o the island, some 540 miles (870 km) sooth-east o the Cuban caipital o Havana.

The municipality extends ower 1,023.8 square kilometers (395.3 sq mi),[2] an contains the communities o El Caney, Guilera, Antonio Maceo, Bravo, Castillo Duany, Leyte Vidal an Moncada.[3]

Historically Santiago de Cuba haes lang been the seicont maist important ceety on the island efter Havana, an still remains the seicont lairgest. It is on a bay connectit tae the Caribbean Sea an is an important sea port. In 2004 the ceety o Santiago de Cuba haed a population o aboot 494,337 fowk.[4]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Street life

Santiago de Cuba wis foondit bi Spainyie conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar on 28 Juin 1514. In 1516 the dounset wis destroyed bi fire, an wis immediately rebuilt. This wis the stairtin point o the expeditions led bi Juan de Grijalba an Hernán Cortés tae the coasts o Mexico in 1518, an in 1538 bi Hernando de Soto's expedition tae Florida. The first cathedral wis built in the ceety in 1528. Frae 1522 till 1589 Santiago wis the caipital o the Spainyie colony o Cuba.

The ceety wis plundered bi French forces in 1553, an bi Breetish forces unner Christopher Myngs in 1662.

The ceety experiencit an influx o French immigrants in the late 18t an early 19t centuries, mony comin frae Haiti efter the Haitian slave revolt o 1791. This addit tae the ceety's eclectic cultural mix, awready rich wi Spainyie an African cultur.

It wis the location whaur Spainyie truips faced their main defeat at San Juan Hill on 1 Julie 1898 an aw, durin the Spainyie-American War. Efter capturin the surroondin hills, General William Rufus Shafter laid siege tae the ceety.[5] Spain later surrendered to the United States after Admiral William T. Sampson destroyed the Spanish Atlantic fleet just outside Santiago's harbor on July 3, 1898.[6][7]

Cuban poet, writer, an naitional hero, José Martí, is buriet in Cementerio Santa Efigenia.

Role in the Cuban Revolution[eedit | eedit soorce]

Santiago wis the hame o the revolutionary hero, Frank País an aw. On 26 Julie 1953, the Cuban Revolution began wi an ill-prepared airmit attack on the Moncada Barracks bi a sma contingent o rebels led bi Fidel Castro. Shortly efter this disastrous incident, País began talkin wi students an young wirkin fowk informally, drawin aroond him wha became an extremely effective urban revolutionary alliance. This developit intae heichlie organisit cells coordinatin a lairge scale urban resistance that became instrumental in the success o the Cuban Revolution.[8]

País' group prepared carefully, accruin weapons, collectin money, collectin medical supplees. They published a cheap newsletter that reportit news that criticisit the govrenment, attemptin tae coonter Batista's censorship.[9]

In the simmer o 1955, País’ organisation merg wi Castro's 26 Julie Muivement. País became the leader o the new organisation in Oriente province, though twa years later he wis betrayed tae the polis on Castro's orders an wis shot efter his captur.

On 1 Januar 1959, Fidel Castro proclaimit the victory o the Cuban Revolution frae a balcony on Santiago de Cuba's ceety haw.

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

UNESCO Warld Heritage Steid
San Pedro de la Roca Castle, Santiago de Cuba
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Castillo de San Pedro de la Roca
Teep Cultural
Criterie iv, v
Reference 841
UNESCO region Laitin Americae an the Caribbean
Inscription history
Inscription 1997 (21st Session)

Santiago de Cuba wis the hametoun o poet José María Heredia. It hooses a museum that displays the extensive airt collection o the Bacardí faimily.

Santiago de Cuba is well kent for its cultural life. Some o Cuba's maist famous muisickers, includin Compay Segundo, Ibrahim Ferrer an Eliades Ochoa (aw o whom pairticipatit in the Buena Vista Social Club) an trova composer Ñico Saquito (Benito Antonio Fernández Ortiz) wur born in the ceety or in ane o the veelages surroondin it. They hae contributit tae the teepical, kintra-like muisic o the ceety.

Furthermair, Santiago de Cuba is well kent for its tradeetional dances, maist notably son, frae which salsa haes been derivit, an guaguancó, which is accompaniet bi percussion muisic anerlie. The ceety is well kent for its Carnival an aw, which is strangely enough celebratit in Julie. Durin Carnival, tradeetional conga muisic is played in the streets on a tradeetional pentatonic trumpet, cried the trompeta china.

A relatively heich nummer o residents o the ceety adhere tae Afro-Cuban releegions, maist notably santería. The ceety hosts an important commonty o descendants frae Haitian immigrants frae the 19t century. Some aspects o the releegious "vodún" heritage o the ceety can be tracit back tae this commonty.

In the ceety thare are multiple airchitectural styles, frae Baroque tae neoclassical. O special interest are the firthit pairks, the steep streets, colonial biggins wi huge windaes an croudit balconies. Preserved historical treasures include the first hame in the Americas, the first cathedral in Cuba, the first copper mine opened in the Americas an the first Cuban museum.

Warld Heritage Steid[eedit | eedit soorce]

The local citadel o San Pedro de la Roca is inscribit on the UNESCO Warld Heritage Leet as "the maist complete, best-preservit example o Spainyie-American militar airchitectur, based on Italian an Renaissance design principles"[10]

Warld Heritage Biosphere Reserve[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Baconao Pairk wis inscribit on the UNESCO Warld Heritage Biosphere Reserve Leet in 1987.[11]

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Santiago de Cuba is locatit in the sootheast o the island at coordinates 20 ° 01'17 .42 "N 75 ° 49'45 .75" O, some 540 miles (870 km) o the caipital, Havana. It featurs a bay connectit tae the Caribbean Sea an is a major port. The municipality o Santiago de Cuba, whaur is its caipital ceety, is the maist populatit o Cuba.

The ceety haes been growin at the bottom o the bay an is surroondit on laund bi the Sierra Maestra. This determines the hot an humid climate o the place, the landscapes featurs rich composition o urban elements, natural an marine at the same time. It haes an irregular affset, which contributit tae the development o an urban settin whaur the avenues an streets are steep or descend.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Climate data for Santiago de Cuba
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average heich °F (°C) 82
Average law °F (°C) 70
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.90

Demografics[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 2004, the municipality o Santiago de Cuba haed a population o 494,337.[1] Wi a total aurie o 1,024 km2 (395 sq mi), it haes a population densitie o 482.8/km2 (1,250/sq mi).

Historical population o Santiago de Cuba
1861 1899 1907 1919 1931 1943 1953
36,752 43,090 45,470 62,083 101,508 118,266 163,237
1970 1981 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
277,600 347,279 423,392 424,031 424,905 425,780 426,199
2007 2008 2009
426,618 426,679 446,233
Census till 2002; atween 2003 an 2009 are estimates

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Santiago is servit bi Antonio Maceo Airport. Cubana de Aviación connects the ceety wi Havana, Montréal, Madrid an Paris-Orly, ither airlines connect the ceety wi the rest o the Caribbean an North Americae.

The public transit in the ceety, like Havana, is carriet oot bi twa diveesions, Omnibus Metropolitanos (OM) an Metrobus.[13] The Metrobus serves the inner-ceety urban aurie, wi a maximum distance o 20 km.[13] Omnibus Metropolitanos (OM) connects the adjacent touns an municipalities in the metropolitan aurie wi the ceety centre, wi a maximum distance o 40 km.[13]

Ferrocarriles de Cuba railweys an ASTRO inter-ceety buses connect the ceety wi Havana's Central Railway Station an wi maist ither main ceeties o Cuba.

Schuils[eedit | eedit soorce]

The main seicontary education institution is the University o Santiago de Cuba (Universidad de Oriente - Santiago de Cuba, UO).

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 (2006). "2004 Population trends, by Province and Municipality". Retrieved October 5, 2007.  (Spaingie)
  2. (2006). "Municipalities of Santiago de Cuba". Retrieved October 5, 2007.  (Spaingie)
  3. "Palma Soriano". Retrieved October 5, 2007.  (Spaingie)
  4. Cuba demographics
  5. Nugent. Walter. Habits of Empire, A History of American Expansion. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 2008. p 301
  7. Nugent. Walter. Habits of Empire, A History of American Expansion. New York: Alfred A Knopf, 2008. p 301
  8. Cannon, Terrance (1981). "Frank País and the Underground Movement in the cities". Retrieved Mey 21, 2006. 
  9. "Who was Frank Pais?". 1981. Retrieved Mey 21, 2006. 
  10. World Heritage Site
  11. Heritage Biosphere Reserve Site
  12. "Average Weather for Santiago de Cuba, --Temperature and Precipitation". Retrieved Juin 22, 2008. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 National Stadistics Office - Transportation

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]