San Marino

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This is aboot the kintra in soothren Europe. For ither uises see San Marino (disambiguation)
Maist Serene Republic o San Marino
Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino
Banner o San Marino
coat o airms o San Marino
Banner coat o airms
Naitional motto:
( Liberty(Italian).)
Location o the  San Marino  (dark green)– on the European continent  (licht green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (licht green)
Location o the  San Marino  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (licht green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (licht green)

Offeecial leid Italian
Caipital Ceety o San Marino
Lairgest ceety Dogana

Heid o State -

Parliamentary republic

Captains regent Valeria Ciavatta
Luca Beccari

Area 61.2
Population 32,404
Foondin 3 September 301 (traditional)
Siller Euro (€)
Time zone CET
Naitional anthem Inno Nazionale della Repubblica
Naitional flouer
Patron saunt
Internet TLD .sm
Cawin code +378

San Marino, kent offeecially as the Maist Serene Republic o San Marino (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino) is a kintra situatit on the eastren side o the Apennine Mountains. It is an enclave, in Italy. Its size is juist ower 61 km2 (24 sq mi) wi an estimatit population o amaist 30,000. Its caipital is the Ceety o San Marino. Ane o the European microstates, alang wi Liechtenstein, the Vatican, Monaco, Andorrae, an Maltae, San Marino haes the smawest population o aw the members o the Council o Europe.

San Marino is the auldest survivin sovereign state an constitutional republic in the warld, as the continuation o the monastic community foondit on 3 September 301, bi stonecutter Marinus o Arbe. Legend haes it that Marinus left Rab, then the Roman colony o Arba, in 257 when the future emperor, Diocletian, issued a decree cawin for the reconstruction o the ceety walls o Rimini, which haed been destroyed bi Liburnian pirates.

The constitution o San Marino, enactit in 1600, is the warld's auldest constitution still in effect.[1] The kintra's economy mainly relies on tourism, an San Marino's cultur remains Italian, mainly Emilia-Romagnan in essence. It is ane o the wealthiest kintras in the warld in terms o GDP (per capita), wi a figure comparable tae some o the mair developed Italian regions, such as Lombardy an the Province o Bolzano-Bozen. San Marino is considered tae have a hichtlit stable economy, wi the lawest unemployment rate in Europe, nae naitional debt an a budget surplus.[2]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main article: History o San Marino
Illustration o Saunt Marinus, the foonder o the Republic o San Marino, an prominent cultural figure

Accordin tae tradeetion, Saunt Marinus left the island o Rab in present-day Croatie wi his lifelang friend Leo, an went tae the ceety o Rimini as a mason. Efter the Diocletianic Persecution follaein his Christian sermons, he escaped tae the nearby Monte Titano, where he built a sma kirk an thus foondit what is nou the ceety an state o San Marino. The offeecial date o foondation o the Republic is 3 September 301.

Bi the mid-5t century, a community wis formed; because o its relatively inaccessible location an its poverty, it haes succeeded, wi a few brief interruptions, in maintainin its independence. In 1631, its independence wis recognized bi the Papacy.

The advance o Napoleon's airmy in 1797 presentit a brief threat tae the independence o San Marino, but the kintra wis spared its liberty thanks tae ane of its Regents, Antonio Onofri, who managed tae gain the respect an friendship o Napoleon. Thanks tae his intervention, Napoleon, in a letter delivered tae Gaspard Monge, scientist an commissary o the French Government for Science an Airt, promised tae guarantee an protect the independence o the Republic, afferin tae extend its territory accordin tae its needs. The affer wis declined bi San Marino, fearin tae provoke future revanchism that might threaten its freedom.[3]

The San Marino constitution o 1600

During the later phase o the Italian unification process in the 19t century, San Marino served as a refuge for mony fowk persecutit because o their support for unification. In recognition o this support, Giuseppe Garibaldi acceptit the wish o San Marino no tae be incorporatit intae the new Italian state.

The government o San Marino made Unitit States Preses Abraham Lincoln an honorary citizen. He wrote in reply, sayin that the republic proved that "government foondit on republican principles is capable o being so administered as tae be secure an endurin."[4]

20t century[eedit | eedit soorce]

Durin Warld War I, when Italy declared war on Austrick-Hungary on 23 Mey 1915, San Marino remained neutral an Italy adoptit a hostile view of Sammarinese neutrality, suspectin that San Marino could harbor Austrian spies who coud be given access tae its new radiotelegraph station. Italy tried tae forcibly establish a detachment o Carabinieri in the Republic an then cut the Republic's telephone lines when it did no comply. Twa groups o ten volunteers did, housomeivver, join Italian forces in the fechtin on the Italian front, the first as combatants an the seicont as a Medical Corps operatin a Red Cross field hospital. The existence o this hospital later caused Austrick-Hungary tae suspend diplomatic relations wi San Marino.[5]

Frae 1923 tae 1943, San Marino wis unner the rule o the Sammarinese Fascist Pairty (PFS).

The front passes Mount Titano in September 1944.

During Warld War II, San Marino remained neutral, although it haed been wrongly reportit on tae hae declared war on the United Kinrick on 17 September 1940.

Three days efter the fall o Benito Mussolini in Italy, PFS rule collapsed an the new government declared neutrality in the conflict. The Fascists regained pouer on 1 Aprile 1944 but kept neutrality intact. Despite that, on 26 Juin 1944 San Marino wis bombed bi the Ryal Air Force, which mistakenly believed that the kinntra haed been owerrun bi German forces and wis being uised tae amass stores an ammunition. At least 35 fowk wur killed in the operation. San Marino acceptit thoosans o civilian refugees when Allied forces went ower the Gothic Line.[6] In September 1944, it wis briefly occupied bi German forces, who wur attackt bi Allied forces in the Battle o San Marino. Allied troops wi'drew frae the kintra shortly efterward.

The heid o state is a committee (council) o twa captains-regent. San Marino haed the warld's first democratically electit communist government, which held office atween 1945 an 1957 an again atween 2006 an 2008.

San Marino is the warld's smallest republic, although when Nauru gained independence in 1968 it challenged that claim, Nauru's land mass being only 21 km2 (8.1 sq mi). However Nauru's jurisdiction over its surrounding waters (431,000 km2) is thousands of times greater than the territory of San Marino.[7]

San Marino became a member o the Council o Europe in 1988 an o the Unitit Nations in 1992. It is no a member o the European Union.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Law Library of United States Congress. "Guide to Law Online: San Marino". Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named cia
  3. "From 1500 to beginning 1800, Napoleon in San Marino". Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  4. Irving Wallace, The Book of Lists 3
  5. "San Marino e la Prima Guerra Mondiale". Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  6. "Guerre Mondiali e Fascismo nella storia di San Marino". Retrieved 2009-10-24. 
  7. "Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profiles: Nauru". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 27 May 2010. 

External links[eedit | eedit soorce]