Roman Empire

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Roman Empire
Consul et lictores.png
27  BC  – 395  AD
395 – 480 (Wastren)
395 – 1453 (Eastren)
Julius Nepos Tremissis.jpg
Constantine multiple CdM Beistegui 233.jpg
Vexilloid Aureus o Augustus
The Roman Empire in 117 AD, at its greatest extent at the time o Trajan's daith (its vassals in pink).[1]
Caipital Roum (27 BC – AD 410)

Mediolanum (286–402, Wastren)
Augusta Treverorum
Ravenna (402–476, Wastren)
Nicomedia (286–330, Eastren)
Constantinople (330–1453, Eastren)
Syracuse (663–669, Eastren)

Government Mixed, functionally absolute monarchy
 -  27  BC  – AD 14 Augustus (first)
 -  98–117 Trajan
 -  284–305 Diocletian
 -  306–337 Constantine I
 -  379–395 Theodosius I[n 2]
 -  474–480 Julius Nepos[n 3]
 -  527–565 Justinian I
 -  976–1025 Basil II
 -  1449–1453 Constantine XI[n 4]
Legislatur Senate
Historical era Clessical era tae Late Middle Ages
 -  Final War o the
Roman Republic
32–30 BC
 -  Empire established 30–2 BC
 -  Constantinople
becomes capital
 -  Final East Wast divide 395
 -  Faw o the Wastren Roman Empire 476
 -  Fowert Crusade 1202–1204
 -  Reconquest o Constantinople 1261
 -  Faw o Constantinople 29 May 1453
 -  25 BC[2][3] 2,750,000 km² (1,061,781 sq mi)
 -  AD 117[2][4] 5,000,000 km² (1,930,511 sq mi)
 -  AD 390[2] 4,400,000 km² (1,698,849 sq mi)
 -  25 BC[2][3] est. 56,800,000 
     Density 20.7 /km²  (53.5 /sq mi)
Siller Sestertius,[n 5] Aureus, Solidus, Nomisma

The Roman Empire (or Impire) wis a gey muckle empire wi its caipital in Rome, ringed ower by an emperor. The first emperor o Rome wis Octavian, efter cried Augustus, frae the year 27 BC. Afore that, Rome haed been a republic ringed ower by a cooncil cried the "Senate".

The Roman Empire wis maist muckle whan ringed ower by Trajan ben the year 117. Efter him, Hadrian shapit it less muckle, an shapit Hadrian's waw ben the nor o Ingland.

Mony modren kintras are on land that wis aince pairt o the Roman Empire, includin Ingland, Spain, Portugal, Fraunce, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Germany, Egyp, an the north coast o Africae. The leid o the Roman Empire wis Laitin. The wastren part o the Roman Empire conteena'd for nearhaund 1000 year, an the eastren pairt, includin Greece an Turkey, conteena'd for aboot a thoosand year mair. The eastren pairt wis cried the Byzantine Empire - fer the auld name o the kintra - wi a caipital at Constantinople.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Ither weys o referrin tae the "Roman Empire" amang the Romans an Greeks themselves includit Res publica Romana or Imperium Romanorum (an aa in Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν ῬωμαίωνBasileía tôn Rhōmaíōn – ["Dominion (Leeterally 'kinrick' but an aa interpretit as 'empire') o the Romans"]) an Romania. Res publica means Roman "commonweel" an can refer to baith the Republican an the Imperial eras. Imperium Romanum (or Romanorum) refers tae the territorial extent o Roman authority. Populus Romanus ("the Roman fowk") wis/is eften uised tae indicate the Roman state in matters involvin ither naitions. The term Romania, ineetially a colloquial term for the empire's territory as well as a collective name for its indwallers, appears in Greek an Laitin soorces frae the 4t century onwart an wis eventually carried ower tae the Eastren Roman Empire (see R. L. Wolff, "Romania: The Latin Empire of Constantinople" in Speculum 23 (1948), pp. 1–34 an especially pp. 2–3).
  2. The final emperor tae rule ower aw o the Roman Empire's territories afore its conversion tae a diarchy.
  3. Offeecially the final emperor o the Wastren empire.
  4. Last emperor o the Eastren (Byzantine) empire.
  5. Abbreviatit "HS". Prices an values are uisually expressed in sesterces.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Bennett, Julian (1997). Trajan: Optimus Princeps : a Life and Times. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-16524-2. . Fig. 1. Regions east o the Euphrates river war held anerly in the years 116–117.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D". Social Science History. Duke University Press. 3 (3/4): 125. doi:10.2307/1170959. JSTOR 1170959. 
  3. Durand, John D. (1977). "Historical Estimates of World Population: An Evaluation". Population and Development Review. 3 (3): 253. doi:10.2307/1971891. JSTOR 1971891. 
  4. Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires" (PDF). Journal of world-systems research. 12 (2): 222. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 6 Februar 2016.