Italo-Wastren leids

Frae Wikipedia, the free beuk o knawledge

   

Italo-Wastern
Geographic

distribution
Italic Peninsula, Fraunce, Iberia (Spain an Portugal)
Linguistic classification Indo-European
Subdivisions
Glottolog ital1285

Italo-Wastern is, in some classifications, the maist muckle Romance brainch. It maks up twa o the brainches o Romance leids: Italo-Dalmatian an Wast Romance. It disnae include the Sardinian leid or East Romance.

Italo-Dalmatian leids[eedit | eedit soorce]

Basin aff o mutual intelligibility, Dalby pits four leids intae 4 category: Corsican, Tuscan an Italian, NapolitanSicilian, an Dalmatian.[1]

Dalmatian Romance[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tuscan an Italian[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • The Tuscan leid is maistly uised in Tuscany, Italy.
    • The Corsican leid is relatit to Tuscan an haes the byleids o Gallurese an Sassarese.
  • The Italian leid, is the closest to Laitin oot o the Romance leids.[2] Italian is an offeecial leid in Italy, Swisserland, San Marino, Vatican Ceety an wast Istria (in Slovenie and Croatie). It uised tae hiv offeecial status in Albanie, Maltae an Monaco, whaur it is still uised abreed, as weel as in umwhile Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa regions whaur it plays a muckle role in sindry sectors. Italian is uised bi muckle expatriate communities in the Americaes and Australie an aw. Italian haes been mainly based on Tuscan, speceefic-like on its Florentine variety an later deeply influenced bi awmaist aw regional leids in Italy while its received pronunciation (kent as Pronuncia Fiorentina Emendata, Amendit Florentine Pronunciation) is based on the tuin frae Romanesco (Roman bytleid); these are the reasons how Italian differs a lot frae Tuscan.[3]

Central Italian[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • The Central Italian leids, or Latin-Umbrian-Marchegian, include the varieties o Romanesco an Marchigiano.

Sooth Italian[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Neapolitan leid is uised in Sooth Italy.
    • The Campanian byleid is uised in the sooth pairt o Lazio an in the region o Campanie.
    • The Abruzzese byleid.
    • The Apulian byleid.
    • The North Calabrian–Lucanian byleid.
    • The Molisan byleid.
  • The Italian o the Far Sooth:

Judeo-Italian[eedit | eedit soorce]

  Judeo-Italian leids are varieties o Italian uised bi Jewish communities, atweesh the 10t an 20t yearhunner, in Italy, Corfu an Zante.

Wast Romance leids[eedit | eedit soorce]

  Based on mutual intelligibility, Dalby pits forrit a dizzen leids: Portuguese, Spainish, Asturian-Leonese, Aragonese, Catalan, Gascon, Provençal, Gallo-Wallon, French, Franco-Provençal, Romansh, an Ladin.[1]

Gallo-Romance[eedit | eedit soorce]

  Gallo-Romance includes:

  • The Langues d'oïl, or Oïl eids. These include Staunart French, Picard, Walloon, Lorrain an Norman.
  • The Arpitan leid, kent as Franco-Provençal. It shares featurs frae baith French an the Provençal byleid o Occitan. Sometimes pit intae the Oïl leids wi the ithers.

Gallo-Romance can include:

  • The Rhaeto-Romance leids. They include Romansh in Swisserland, Ladin in the Dolomites aurie, Friulian in Friuli. Rhaeto-Romance leids can be pit as Gallo-Romance, or as an unthirlt brainch o the Wast Romance leids.
  • The Occitano-Romance leids in Sooth Fraunce an East Iberia, includes Occitan an Catalan. Occitano-Romance leids can be pit as Gallo-Romance, Iberian-Romance, or as an unthirlt brainch in the Wast Romance leid tree.
    • The Occitan leid, or langue d'oc, haes byleids sic as the Provençal byleid, an Gascon-Aranese byleid.
    • The Catalan leid haes staunart forms o Catalan an Valencian. Can be pit as East Iberian.
  • The Gallo-Italic leids. Thay include Piedmontese, Ligurian, Lombard, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Gallo-Italic o Sicily and Gallo-Italic o Basilicata. Gallo-Italic leids can be pit as Gallo-Romance or as North Italian byleids. The Venetian leid is sometimes includit in Gallo-Italic, but it haes twa three chairacteristics that set it apairt frae it.[4]

The Oïl leids, Arpitan an Rhaeto-Romance leids are sometimes cried Gallo-Rhaetian.

Iberian-Romance[eedit | eedit soorce]

 

  • The West Iberian leids:
  • The Pyrenean–Mozarabic leids: includes Aragonese, an the extinct Mozarabic. Can be pit as West Iberian.
  • The East Iberian leid, or Catalan leid: usually pit as pairt o Occitano-Romance, see Gallo-Romance abuin.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. a b David Dalby, 1999/2000, The Linguasphere register of the world's languages and speech communities. (in Inglis) Observatoire Linguistique, Linguasphere Press. Volume 2. Oxford.[1][deid airtin][2][3] Archived 2014-08-27 at the Wayback Machine
  2. "Romance languages". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 Februar 2017. ... if the Romance languages are compared with Latin, it is seen that by most measures Sardinian and Italian are least differentiated and French most
  3. La pronuncia italiana (Italian). (in Italian) treccani.it
  4. Lorenzo Renzi, Nuova introduzione alla filologia romanza, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1994, p. 176 (in Italian) «I dialetti settentrionali formano un blocco abbastanza compatto con molti tratti comuni che li accostano, oltre che tra loro, qualche volta anche alla parlate cosiddette ladine e alle lingue galloromanze [...] Alcuni fenomeni morfologici innovativi sono pure abbastanza largamente comuni, come la doppia serie pronominale soggetto (non sempre in tutte le persone)[...] Ma più spesso il veneto si distacca dal gruppo, lasciando così da una parte tutti gli altri dialetti, detti gallo-italici.»