Halych

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For the historic region o Halychyna/Galich, see Galicie (Eastren Europe) and Galicie-Volhynie.
Halych
Галич
Halych (12).jpg
Banner o Halych
Banner
Offeecial seal o Halych
Seal
Halych is locatit in Ukraine
Halych
Halych
Coordinates: 49°7′29″N 24°43′43″E / 49.12472°N 24.72861°E / 49.12472; 24.72861
Kintra  Ukraine
Oblast Ivano-Frankivsk
Raion Halych
Govrenment
 • Mayor Orest Trachyk
Population
 • Tot 6,406
Wabsteid City's Council
Raion Administration
Jackdaw on Galicie's coat-o-airms alludes tae the name "Halych"

Halych (Ukrainian: Галич, Halych; Romanie: Halici; Roushie: Галич, Galich, German: Halytsch, Pols: Halicz) is a historic ceety on the Dniester River in wastren Ukraine. The toun gae its name tae the historic province an the Kinrick o Galicie–Volhynie,[1][2][3] o which it wis the caipital till the early 14t hunderyear, when the seat o the local princes wis muivit tae Lviv.

In the past, the toun belangit tae several kintras. In 1349, thegether wi Red Ruthenie, it wis annexed bi Pols Keeng Kazimierz Wielki. Efter his daith, it wis ruled bi the Kinrick o Hungary (1370-1387). For the next 400 years, it wis pairt o Poland’s Ruthenie Voivodship, but follaein the first pairteetion o Poland (1772) it became pairt o Austrian Galicie, in which it remained till late 1918. Atween November 1918 an Mey 1919, Halych belangit tae short-livit Wast Ukrainian Fowkrepublic. Frae Mey 1919 till September 1939 (see Soviet invasion o Poland), Halych/Halicz the seat o a coonty in Seicont Pols Republic’s Stanislawow Voivodship.

The day Halych is a smaw ceety an is locatit richt next tae the umwhile caipital o the Galicie Kinrick awtho it preservit its former name. It is the admeenistrative center o the Halych Raion (destrict) o the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (province) an aw. It lees 26 km (16 mi) north o the oblast caipital, Ivano-Frankivsk. Halych's population is estimatit at 6,406.

Name[eedit | eedit soorce]

Stamp o Austrian Empire cancelled in 1859 in Pols HALICZ

The ceety's name, tho spelled identically in modren East Slavic leids (Галич), is pronooncit Halych in Ukrainian an Galich in Roushie. The Roushie transleeteration shoud no be ramfeeselt wi the Roushie toun o Galich. In Pols the name is rendered Halicz; in the Yiddish leid Helitsh or Heylitsh (העליטש); in Laitin, Galic; in Hungarian, Halics; in Romanie, Halici.

The oreegin o the Slavic toponym "Halych" is efter the Khwalis/Kaliz/Khalisioi who occupee'd the aurie frae the time o the Magyars. The Roushie toponym/ethnonym Khvalis (Хвалис) mey be relatit an aw. Historians umwhile believit it wis Celtic, relatit tae mony seemilar place names foond athort Europe sic as "Galaţi" (Romanie), "Galatie" (Turkey), "Gaul" (Fraunce) an "Galicie" (Spain). Anither version postulates "hals", "salt", at the ruit o "Halych", as the salt tred wis a substantial economic factor in the medieval history o Halych. Max Vasmer an modren Slavists generally agree that "Halych" is an adjective derived frae the East Slavic wurd for "jackdaw," "halka." This bird featurt in the toun's coat o airms (but no in the Árpád coat o airms, when Corvinus is a raven) when it wis pairt o the Austro-Hungarian Empire (syne 1772).

Local fowk legend wad hae it that the name "Halych" comes frae a legendar "Prince Halychyna," the first ruler o thir land. In fact, a kurgan referred tae bi locals as "Halychyna's tomb," excavatit in 1996, conteened a ritual cremation steid an a bronze wappen an gowd disc that coud hae belangit tae a noble leader.

Auld Halych[eedit | eedit soorce]

See an aa: Krylos

The auldest airchaeological airtifacts frae the territory o Halych are classifee'd tae Paleolithic period 40000 years ago. Mair systematic fyndins frae a wide nummer o airchaeological culturs datit frae 5500 BC till nouadays indicate that population o local terrains wis virtually perpetual for some past 7000 years. Accordin tae excavatit fynds, the population o Halych became especially significant frae 8-9 c. AD.

Written mention o Halych bi Slavic chronicles dates back tae 1138. The maist comprehensive records aboot Halych are foond in the Hypatian Codex o the Primar Chronicle. In 1141 Prince (knyaz) Volodymyrko Volodarovych (1104–1152) who unitit the competin principalities o Przemyśl, Zvenyhorod an Terebovlya intae the state o Halychyna transferred his caipital frae Zvenyhorod tae Halych makkin it the seat o his Rurikid dynasty an considerably expandin the dounset.

Interestingly, local offeecials attribute the first written mention o Halych tae the year 896. The opinion is supportit bi a record foond in the Gesta Hungarorum, which are court chronicles o the Hungarian keeng Béla III frae the beginnin o the 13t hunderyear. The chronicles describe a stay o Hungarian tribes led bi Prince Álmos in Halych on thair wey throu Slavic laund tae Pannonie. The claim is no supportit bi serious scholars. Similarly, anither curious date for the first written mention, 290 AD (wi a reference tae "Getica" bi Goth Jordanes) is no acceptit bi majority.

The first dynasty o Halych, stryndin frae Vladimir o Novgorod, culminatit in Yaroslav Osmomysl (1153–1187) -- efter whose rule Béla III o Hungary briefly conquered the Principality in 1188—afore goin extinct in 1199. The same year Roman the Great foondit the new Rurikid dynasty, unitin Halychyna an Volhynie intae the mair powerful principality o Galicie-Volhynie. The Mongols unner Batu Khan teuk the caipital in 1241, when the famous Keeng Danylo wis its ruler. Thareefter the toun steadily declined, eventually cedin supremacy tae the newly foondit Lviv.

This 16t-hunderyear firthen kirk frae Krylos exemplifee's traditional firthen airchitectur o Galicie.

The excavations o 1933-42 (Jaroslaw Pasternak), 1951-52 (Karger M.K., Aulikh V.), an 1955 uncovered remains o hooses, wirkshops, fortifications, an ten kirks biggit o white stane. Pasternak's excavations established that auncient Halych oreeginatit on the spot o the day's veelage Krylos (locatit 5 km sooth o modren Halych) as early as the 10t hunderyear. In 1936 Pasternak discovered remains o a 11t tae 12t hunderyear three-apse cathedral an aw wi burial tomb o Prince Yaroslav Osmomysl in it. The cathedral is ascribed tae the Cathedral o the Dormition previously kent anerly frae Chronicles, kent tae hae been a sepulchre o the earliest Halychian princes. The sheer size (37,5 bi 32,4 m) o the cathedral (the seicont lairgest mediaeval kirk on the territory o present-day Ukraine, smawer anerly tae St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev), suggests that auncient Halych wis the seat o a diocese. Maist likely the cathedral wis biggit in 1157 an destroyed in 1241 bi hordes o Batyi Khan, then rebuilt again an last time mentioned in 1576.

It is believit that the early Halychian airchitectural style, thoroly permeatit wi Romanesque influences frae the Wast, haed been transferred further north-east. The builders o temples in Halych are believit tae hae been responsible for the extant Pereslavl Cathedral an Kirk o Intercession upon Nerl an aw. The foondations o the Assumption Cathedral (1157) are still tae be seen. The anerly survivin medieval kirk is that o Saunt Pantaleon, oreeginally constructit at the turn o the 12t an 13t hunderyears, but significantly rebuilt in the 17t hunderyear an controversially reconstructit in the 1990s. The airchaeological excavations (1989-2005 unner direction o Yuri Lukomsky) at the terrains o Krylos an Halych continue.

New Halych[eedit | eedit soorce]

Nativity kirk (14t-15t hunderyear)

Gradually, auld Halych depopulatit tae the pynt that its anerly mid-14t-hunderyear indwallers wur the Metropolitan o Halych an his staff. The present-day toun is situatit aboot 5 kilometres (3 miles) awa frae the auncient caipital o Halychyna, on the spot whaur the auld toun's riverport uised tae be locatit an whaur prince Lubart o Lithuanie constructit his firthen castle in 1367.

Its main historical monument is the kirk dedicatit tae the Nativity o Mary. Oreeginally biggit at the turn o the 14t an 15t hunderyear, it wis restored in 1825. An aw o interest is an equestrian monument tae Daniel o Galicie, opened in 2003 tae merk the 750t anniversar o that prince's coronation as the keeng o Ruthenie.

In 1349, follaein the daith o Duke Boleslaw Jerzy II o Mazovie an the Galicie–Volhynie Wars, Halych wis annexed bi Pols Keeng Kazimierz Wielki. In 1367, it wis grantit Magdeburg rights, an in the same year, a Roman Catholic Diocese wis established here. Five years later, Pape Gregory XI creatit in Avignon the Airchdiocese o Halicz, which controlled the Dioceses o Chełm, Przemyśl an Wlodzimierz Wolynski. In 1409, the Airchdiocese wis muivit tae Lwow.

Efter Kazimierz Wielki’s daith (1370), Louis I, Keeng o Poland an Hungary subjectit Reid Ruthenie tae the authority o Hungarian-appointit starostas, owerleukit bi Duke Vladislaus II o Opole. Hungarians remained in Halych till 1387, when Queen Jadwiga o Poland remuivit thaim an re-annexed the aurie intae Poland. In the Kinrick o Poland, Halych remained ane o main admeenistrative centers o the Ruthenie Voivodship. In 1564, the Sejm in Warsaw creatit a sejmik in Halicz, which ruled ower the Ziemia o Halicz, includin the powiats o Halicz, Trembowla an Kolomyja.

Durin the Pols–Ottoman War (1620–21), Halicz wis burned bi Crimean Tatars (1621), an in 1624, Hetman Stanislaw Koniecpolski defeatit the Tatars at Martynow, near Halicz. In 1649, Halicz wis ance again destroyed bi Cossacks o Bohdan Khmelnytsky, further destruction teuk place in 1676, durin the Polish–Ottoman War (1672–76). In 1765, Halicz haed 110 hooses an 3 kirks, an Franciszek Ksawery Potocki servin as local starosta. The toun wis seizit bi Austrian troops in 1772, an remained pairt o the Austrian Empire (later Austrick-Hungary) till late 1918.

In 1870, the population o Halicz wis 4142, includin 1609 Roman Catholics, 1690 Greek-Catholics, an 839 Jews. On 1 November 1918, till Mey 1919, the toun wis admeenistered bi Ukrainians. Follaein the Pols–Ukrainian War, Halicz temporarily returned tae Poland, which wis confirmit in Paris on 25 Juin 1919. On 16 September 1920, durin the Pols–Soviet War, the Battle o Dytiatyn teuk place near Halicz, an on 15 Mairch 1923, the Conference o Ambassadors recognisit permanent Pols control ower eastren pairt o umwhile Galicie. Till the Soviet invasion o Poland, Halicz belangit tae Stanislawow Voivodeship, in which it wis the seat o a coonty. Efter Warld War II, its Pols residents wur resettled tae the sae-cried Recovered Territories.

Tourist attractions[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gallery[eedit | eedit soorce]

Location[eedit | eedit soorce]

Local orientation
Regional orientation

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "European Kingdoms - Eastern Europe - Galicia". The History Files. Kessler Associates. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  2. History of Galicia
  3. Ukrainian Historiacal Glossary
  • Pasternak J. Die neuentdeckte mittelalterliche Kathedrale in Krylos. – Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas, 1938, Bd. 3, S.
  • Big list of references

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Template:Halych Raion

Template:Caipitals o Ukraine

Coordinates: 49°7′29″N 24°43′43″E / 49.12472°N 24.72861°E / 49.12472; 24.72861