Dakhla Oasis

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Dakhla Oasis
Dakhla Oasis, Februar 1988.
Dakhla Oasis, Februar 1988.
Inner oasis
Dakhla Oasis is located in Egypt
Dakhla Oasis
Dakhla Oasis
Location in Egypt
Coordinates: 25°31′N 29°10′E / 25.517°N 29.167°E / 25.517; 29.167
GovrenorateNew Valley Govrenorate
 • Total2000 km2 (800 sq mi)
 • Laund1500 km2 (600 sq mi)
 • Total75 000
 • Ethnicities
Ottomans (Qalamoun)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EST)
Caipital'Ain Basil (Balat) (c. 2500 BCE-c. 1500 BCE)
Mut (c. 1500 BCE- )

Dakhla Oasis (Arabic: الداخلة; transliteration: al-Dākhla; BGN: Al Wāḩāt ad Dākhilah), an aa spelt Dakhleh an kent colloquially as the inner oasis, is ane o the seiven oases o Egyp's Wastren Desert (pairt o the Libyan Desert). Dakhla Oasis lies in the New Valley Govrenorate, 350 km frae the Nile an atween the oases o Farafra an Kharga. It measures approximately 80 km (50 mi) frae east tae wast an 25 km (16 mi) frae north tae sooth.[1]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Prehistory[eedit | eedit soorce]

The human history o this oasis stairtit durin the Pleistocene, when nomadic tribes settled sometime thare, in a time when the Sahara climate wis wetter an whaur humans coud hae access tae lakes an mairshes. But aboot 6 000 years ago, the entire Sahara became drier, chyngin progressively intae a hyper-arid desert (wi less nor 50 mm o rain per year). Housomeivver, specialists think that nomadic hunter-gatherers began tae settle awmaist permanently in the oasis of Dakhleh in the period o the Holocene (aboot 12 000 years ago), during new, but rare episodes of wetter times.

In fact, the drier climate didna mean that thare wis nae mair watter in what is nou kent as the Wastren Desert. The sooth o the Libyan Desert haes the maist important supply o subterranean watter in the warld, an the first indwallers o the Dakhla Oasis haed access tae surface watter soorces.

Pharaonic Period[eedit | eedit soorce]

The first contacts atween the pharaonic pouer an the oases stairtit aroond 2550 BCE.

Islamic Period[eedit | eedit soorce]

The fortifeed Islamic toun o Al Qasr wis biggit at Dakhla Oasis in the 12t century probably on the remains o a Roman era dounset bi the Ayyubid keengs o Egyp.[2]

Efter 1800[eedit | eedit soorce]

The first European traveller tae find the Dakhla Oasis wis Sir Archibald Edmonstone, in the year 1819.[1] He wis succeedit bi several ither early travellers, but it wis no till 1908 that the first Egyptologist, Herbert Winlock, visitit Dakhla Oasis an notit its monuments in some seestematic manner.[1] In the 1950s, detailed studies began, first bi Dr. Ahmed Fakhry, an in the late 1970s, an expedeetion o the Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale an the Dakhla Oasis Project each began detailed studies in the oasis.[1]

Al-Qasr toun at Dakhla Oasis

Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Dakhla Oasis consists o several communities, alang a string o sub-oases. The main settlements are Mut (mair fully Mut el-Kharab an aunciently cried Mothis), Al-Qasr, Qalamoun, thegither wi several smawer veelages. Some o the communities hae identities that are separate frae ilk ither. Qalamoun haes indwallers that trace thair oreegins tae the Ottomans.

Dakhleh Oasis Project[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Dakhleh Oasis Project (DOP) is a lang-term study project o the Dakhleh Oasis an the surroondin palaeoasis, initiatit in 1978 when the Royal Ontario Museum an the Canadian Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities wur awardit a jynt concession for pairt o the Oasis.[3] In 1979, the Centre for Archaeology an Auncient History at Monash University began tae cooperate in the project.[1]

The DOP studies the interaction atween environmental chynges an human activity in the Dakhleh Oasis. The director o the DOP is Anthony J. Mills, umwhile curator at the Ryal Ontario Museum. The excavations at Ismant el-Kharab (auncient Kellis),[4] Mut el-Kharab (auncient Mothis),[5] Deir Abu Metta an Muzawwaqa[6] are unnertaken wi the cooperation o Monash University, unner the direction o Gillian E. Bowen. Bowen an Colin Hope, an aa o Monash, are the principal investigators at Ismant el-Kharab. The DOP haes an aa excavatit at 'Ain el-Gazzareen,[7] El Qasr el-Dakhil,[8] Deir el Hagar[9] an Ain Birbiyeh.[10]

As well as the Dakhleh Trust, formed in 1999 tae raise money for the DOP, organisations which hae supportit or participatit in the DOP include: the Royal Ontario Museum, the Society for the Study o Egyptian Antiquities, Monash University, the University o Durham, the University o Toronto, Columbia University, the American Research Centre in Egypt, the Egyptology Society of Victoria Archived 2010-09-13 at the Wayback Machine an New York University.

In addition, excavations are undertaken at Amheida unner the direction of Roger S. Bagnall. Thir war oreeginally conducted unner the auspices of Columbia University, but are currently conducted for New York University.[11]

Dakhleh Trust[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Dakhleh Trust wis formed in 1999 an is a registered charity in Breetain.

Its declared aim is tae advance unnerstaundin o the history o the environment an cultural evolution throughoot the Quaternary period in the eastren Sahara, an parteecularly in the Dakhla Oasis.

Tae this end, the present trustees hae committit theairsels tae supportin the DOP.

Trustees[eedit | eedit soorce]

Name Personal details Office
John Ruffle MA Retired museum curator an Egyptologist Chairman
Judith Trowell Treasurer
Sir Graham Boyce KCMG
Glenys Carter MBE Retired director, National Association of Toy and Leisure Libraries Archived 2010-12-05 at the Wayback Machine
Simon deMare Museologist
Anthony Harris
Peter Mackenzie-Smith Managin director, Prothero Leemitit

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. a b c d e "Dakleh Oasis Projects, Arts, Monash University". Monash University. 24 September 2010. Archived frae the original on 17 Julie 2012. Retrieved 8 Februar 2011.
  2. Su (31 Mairch 2009). "Qasr Dakhla, Egyptian Monuments". Retrieved 8 Februar 2011. (blog)
  3. "SSEA Dakleh Oasis Project". Society for the Study of Egyption Antiquities. 2006. Archived frae the original on 16 Apryle 2009. Retrieved 8 Februar 2011.
  4. "Ismant el-Kharab, ancient Kellis". Monash University. 12 November 2010. Archived frae the original on 18 Februar 2011. Retrieved 8 Februar 2011.
  5. "Excavations at Mut el-Kharab, Dakhleh Oasis". Monash University. 9 December 2010. Archived frae the original on 19 Julie 2012. Retrieved 8 Februar 2011.
  6. "Deir Abu Metta and Muzawwaqa, Dakhleh Oasis". Monash University. 5 November 2010. Archived frae the original on 19 Julie 2012. Retrieved 8 Februar 2011.
  7. "'Ain el-Gazzareen". Dakhleh Trust. 2005. Archived frae the original on 8 Julie 2011. Retrieved 8 Februar 2011.
  8. "El Qasr el-Dakhil". Dakhleh Trust. 2005. Archived frae the original on 8 Julie 2011. Retrieved 8 Februar 2011.
  9. "Deir el Hagar". Dakhleh Trust. 2005. Archived frae the original on 8 Julie 2011. Retrieved 8 Februar 2011.
  10. "Annual Report 2008, Ain Birbiyeh Temple Project" (PDF). Monash University. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 24 September 2011. Retrieved 8 Februar 2011.
  11. NYU. "NYU Excavations at Amheida". Retrieved 8 Februar 2011.

Further readin[eedit | eedit soorce]

Published wirks[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Fakhry, A. The Oases of Egypt, I : Siwa Oasis, Le Caire, Amer. Univ. in Cairo Press.
  • Fakhry, A. The Oases of Egypt, II: Bahriyah an Farafra Oases, Le Caire, Univ. in Cairo Press, c. 2003.
  • Giddy, L. Egyptian Oases: Bahariya, Dakhla, Farafra an Kharga during Pharaonic Times, Warminster, Aris & Philips, 1987.
  • Jackson, R. At Empire’s Edge: Exploring Roum’s Egyptian Frontier, New Haven et Londres, Yale University Press, 2002.
  • Thurston, H. Island o the Blessed : the Secrets of Egypt’s Everlasting Oasis, Toronto, Doubleday, 2003.
  • Vivian, C. The Western Desert of Egypt: an explorer’s handbook, AUC Press, le Caire, 2000.
  • Wagner, G. Les oasis d’Égypte à l’époque grecque, romaine et byzantine, d’après les documents grecs, Le Caire, Recherches de papyrologie et d’épigraphie grecques, 1987.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Coordinates: 25°31′N 29°10′E / 25.517°N 29.167°E / 25.517; 29.167

Template:Egypt oasis auries