Dakhla Oasis

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Dakhla Oasis
Oasis
Dakhla Oasis, Februar 1988.
Dakhla Oasis, Februar 1988.
Nickname(s): Inner oasis
Dakhla Oasis is located in Egypt
Dakhla Oasis
Dakhla Oasis
Location in Egypt
Coordinates: 25°31′N 29°10′E / 25.517°N 29.167°E / 25.517; 29.167
Kintra Egyp
Govrenorate New Valley Govrenorate
Aurie
 • Tot 2,000 km2 (800 sq mi)
 • Laund 1,500 km2 (600 sq mi)
Population (2002)
 • Tot 75 000
 • Ethnicities Egyptians
Ottomans (Qalamoun)
Time zone EST (UTC+2)
Caipital 'Ain Basil (Balat) (c. 2500 BCE-c. 1500 BCE)
Mut (c. 1500 BCE- )

Dakhla Oasis (Arabic: الداخلة; transliteration: al-Dākhla; BGN: Al Wāḩāt ad Dākhilah), an aa spelt Dakhleh an kent colloquially as the inner oasis, is ane o the seiven oases o Egyp's Wastren Desert (pairt o the Libyan Desert). Dakhla Oasis lies in the New Valley Govrenorate, 350 km frae the Nile an atween the oases o Farafra an Kharga. It measures approximately 80 km (50 mi) frae east tae wast an 25 km (16 mi) frae north tae sooth.[1]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Prehistory[eedit | eedit soorce]

The human history o this oasis stairtit durin the Pleistocene, when nomadic tribes settled sometime there, in a time when the Sahara climate wis wetter an whaur humans coud hae access tae lakes an mairshes. But aboot 6 000 years ago, the entire Sahara became drier, chyngin progressively intae a hyper-arid desert (wi less than 50 mm o rain per year). Housomeivver, specialists think that nomadic hunter-gatherers began to settle almost permanently in the oasis of Dakhleh in the period of the Holocene (about 12 000 years ago), during new, but rare episodes of wetter times.

In fact, the drier climate didna mean that there wis nae mair water in what is nou kent as the Wastren Desert. The sooth o the Libyan Desert haes the maist important supply o subterranean water in the warld, an the first inhabitants o the Dakhla Oasis haed access tae surface water sources.

Pharaonic Period[eedit | eedit soorce]

The first contacts atween the pharaonic pouer an the oases stairtit aroond 2550 BCE.

Islamic Period[eedit | eedit soorce]

The fortifeed Islamic toun o Al Qasr wis built at Dakhla Oasis in the 12t century probably on the remains o a Roman era settlement bi the Ayyubid keengs o Egyp.[2]

Efter 1800[eedit | eedit soorce]

The first European traveller tae find the Dakhla Oasis wis Sir Archibald Edmonstone, in the year 1819.[1] He wis succeedit bi several ither early travellers, but it wis no till 1908 that the first Egyptologist, Herbert Winlock, visitit Dakhla Oasis an notit its monuments in some seestematic manner.[1] In the 1950s, detailed studies began, first by Dr. Ahmed Fakhry, and in the late 1970s, an expedition of the Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale and the Dakhla Oasis Project each began detailed studies in the oasis.[1]

Al-Qasr toun at Dakhla Oasis

Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Dakhla Oasis consists o several communities, alang a string o sub-oases. The main settlements are Mut (mair fully Mut el-Kharab an aunciently cried Mothis), Al-Qasr, Qalamoun, thegither wi several smawer veelages. Some o the communities hae identities that are separate frae each ither. Qalamoun haes inhabitants that trace their oreegins tae the Ottomans.

Dakhleh Oasis Project[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Dakhleh Oasis Project (DOP) is a lang-term study project o the Dakhleh Oasis an the surroondin palaeoasis, initiatit in 1978 when the Royal Ontario Museum an the Canadian Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities wur awardit a joint concession for pairt o the Oasis.[3] In 1979, the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History at Monash University began tae cooperate in the project.[1]

The DOP studies the interaction atween environmental chynges an human activity in the Dakhleh Oasis. The director o the DOP is Anthony J. Mills, umwhile curator at the Ryal Ontario Museum. The excavations at Ismant el-Kharab (auncient Kellis),[4] Mut el-Kharab (ancient Mothis),[5] Deir Abu Metta and Muzawwaqa[6] are unnertaken wi the cooperation o Monash University, unner the direction o Gillian E. Bowen. Bowen an Colin Hope, an aa o Monash, are the principal investigators at Ismant el-Kharab. The DOP haes an aa excavatit at 'Ain el-Gazzareen,[7] El Qasr el-Dakhil,[8] Deir el Hagar[9] and Ain Birbiyeh.[10]

As well as the Dakhleh Trust, formed in 1999 tae raise money for the DOP, organizations which hae supportit or participatit in the DOP include: the Royal Ontario Museum, the Society for the Study o Egyptian Antiquities, Monash University, the University o Durham, the University o Toronto, Columbia University, the American Research Centre in Egypt, the Egyptology Society of Victoria an New York University.

In addition, excavations are undertaken at Amheida under the direction of Roger S. Bagnall. These were originally conducted under the auspices of Columbia University, but are currently conducted for New York University.[11]

Dakhleh Trust[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Dakhleh Trust wis formed in 1999 an is a registered charity in Breetain.

Its declared aim is tae advance unnerstaundin o the history o the environment an cultural evolution throughoot the Quaternary period in the eastren Sahara, an particularly in the Dakhla Oasis.

Tae this end, the present trustees hae committit theairsels tae supportin the DOP.

Trustees[eedit | eedit soorce]

Name Personal details Office
John Ruffle MA Retired museum curator an Egyptologist Chairman
Judith Trowell Treasurer
Sir Graham Boyce KCMG
Glenys Carter MBE Retired director, National Association of Toy and Leisure Libraries
Simon deMare Museologist
Anthony Harris
Peter Mackenzie-Smith Managin director, Prothero Limited

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "Dakleh Oasis Projects, Arts, Monash University". Monash University. September 24, 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  2. Su (Mairch 31, 2009). "Qasr Dakhla, Egyptian Monuments". Retrieved 2011-02-08.  (blog)
  3. "SSEA Dakleh Oasis Project". Society for the Study of Egyption Antiquities. 2006. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  4. "Ismant el-Kharab, ancient Kellis". Monash University. November 12, 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  5. "Excavations at Mut el-Kharab, Dakhleh Oasis". Monash University. December 9, 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  6. "Deir Abu Metta and Muzawwaqa, Dakhleh Oasis". Monash University. November 5, 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  7. "'Ain el-Gazzareen". Dakhleh Trust. 2005. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  8. "El Qasr el-Dakhil". Dakhleh Trust. 2005. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  9. "Deir el Hagar". Dakhleh Trust. 2005. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  10. "Annual Report 2008, Ain Birbiyeh Temple Project" (PDF). Monash University. Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  11. NYU. "NYU Excavations at Amheida". Retrieved 2011-02-08. 

Further readin[eedit | eedit soorce]

Published wirks[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Fakhry, A. The Oases of Egypt, I : Siwa Oasis, Le Caire, Amer. Univ. in Cairo Press.
  • Fakhry, A. The Oases of Egypt, II: Bahriyah and Farafra Oases, Le Caire, Univ. in Cairo Press, c. 2003.
  • Giddy, L. Egyptian Oases: Bahariya, Dakhla, Farafra and Kharga during Pharaonic Times, Warminster, Aris & Philips, 1987.
  • Jackson, R. At Empire’s Edge: Exploring Rome’s Egyptian Frontier, New Haven et Londres, Yale University Press, 2002.
  • Thurston, H. Island of the Blessed : the Secrets of Egypt’s Everlasting Oasis, Toronto, Doubleday, 2003.
  • Vivian, C. The Western Desert of Egypt: an explorer’s handbook, AUC Press, le Caire, 2000.
  • Wagner, G. Les oasis d’Égypte à l’époque grecque, romaine et byzantine, d’après les documents grecs, Le Caire, Recherches de papyrologie et d’épigraphie grecques, 1987.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Coordinates: 25°31′N 29°10′E / 25.517°N 29.167°E / 25.517; 29.167

Template:Egypt oasis auries