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For ither uises, see Faiyum (disambiguation).
Kintra  Egyp
Govrenorate Faiyum
Population (2006)
 • Tot 316,772
Time zone EST (UTC+2)

Faiyum (Arabic: الفيومFayyūm, Coptic: 'Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ Paiom) is a ceety in Middle Egyp an the caipital o the Faiyum Govrenorate. It is locatit 130 km soothwast o Cairo an occupies pairt o the auncient steid o Crocodilopolis. Foondit in aroond 4000 B.C., it is the auldest ceety in Egyp an ane o the auldest in Africae.

Name an etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]

pA-y-m (Faiyum)
in hieroglyphs
pA A i i G20 n

Its name in Inglis is an' a' spelled as Fayum, Fayoum, Al Fayyum or El Faiyūm. Faiyum wis previously offeecially named Madīnet el Faiyūm (Arabic for The Ceety o Faiyum). The name Faiyum (an its spellin variations) mey an' a' refer tae the Faiyum Oasis, although it is commonly uised bi Egyptians the day tae refer tae the ceety.[1][2]

The modren name o the ceety comes frae Coptic 'Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ /Ⲡⲉⲓⲟⲙ efiom/peiom (whence the proper name Ⲡⲁⲓⲟⲙ payom), meanin the Sea or the Lake, which in turn comes frae late Egyptian pA y-m o the same meanin, a reference tae the nearbi Lake Moeris.

Auncient ceety[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main article: Crocodilopolis

Modren ceety[eedit | eedit soorce]

Faiyum haes several lairge bazaars, mosques,[3] baths an a muckle-frequentit weekly mercat. The canal cried Bahr Yussef runs through the ceety, its banks lined wi hooses. There are twa brigs ower the river: ane o three airches, which carries the main street an bazaar, an ane o twa airches, ower which is built the Qaitbay mosque, that wis a gift frae his wife tae honor the Mamluk Sultan in Fayoum. Moonds north o the ceety mark the site o Arsinoe, kent tae the auncient Greeks as Crocodilopolis, whaur in auncient times the sacred crocodile kept in Lake Moeris wis worshipped.[4]

The center o the ceety is on the canal, wi the fower waterwheels, that are adoptit bi the govrenorate o Fayoum as its naitional seembol, their chariots an bazaars are easy tae spat.

Faiyum mummy portraits[eedit | eedit soorce]

Portrait o a man, ca. 125-150 AD.. Encaustic on wood; 37 x 20 cm.

Faiyum is the source o some famous daith masks or mummy portraits paintit durin the Roman occupation o the aurie. The Egyptians continued their practice o buryin their deid, despite the Roman preference for cremation. While unner the control o the Roman Empire, Egyptian daith masks wur paintit on wood in a pigmentit wax technique cried encaustic—the Faiyum mummy portraits represent this technique.[5] While commonly believed tae represent Greek settlers in Egyp, the Faiyum portraits insteid reflect the complex synthesis o the predominant Egyptian cultur an that o the elite Greek minority in the ceety.

Undisputit remains o early anthropoids date frae the late Eocene an early Oligocene, aboot 34 million years ago, in the Fayyum aurie, soothwast o Cairo. Ane o the earliest fossil primates at Fayum is Catopithecus, datin tae aroond 35 million years ago.

Famous Steids[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notable fowk[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tefta Tashko-Koço, well kent Albanian sangster wis born in Faiyum, whaur her family lived at that time.

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]


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