Olympic Gemmes

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For the 776 BC tae AD 393 gemmes, see Auncient Olympic Gemmes. For the maist recent Simmer Gemmes that were held in London, see 2012 Simmer Olympics. For the Simmer Gemmes tae be held in Rio de Janeiro, see 2016 Simmer Olympics. For the Winter Gemmes tae be held in Sochi, Roushie, see 2014 Winter Olympics.
"Olympics" redirects here. For ether uises, see Olympic (disambiguation).
Olympic Games
Organizations
Gemmes

The modern Olympic Gemmes (French: les Jeux olympiques, JO[1]) is the leadin internaitional sportin event featurin simmer an winter sports competitions in which thoosands o athletes participate in a variety o competitions. The Olympic Gemmes are considered tae be the warld's foremaist sports competition wi more than 200 naitions participatin.[2] The Olympic Gemmes are held quadrennially, (every fower years) wi the Summer an Winter Gemmes alternatin, meanin they each occur every fower years but twa years apart. Their creation wis inspired bi the auncient Olympic Gemmes, which were held in Olympia, Greece, frae the 8t century BC tae the 4t century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin foondit the Internaitional Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894. The IOC is the govrening body o the Olympic Movement, wi the Olympic Charter definin its structure an authority.

Host naitions an ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Cairt o Simmer Olympics locations. Kintras that hae hostit ane Simmer Olympics are shaded green, while kintras that hae hostit twa or more are shaded blue.
Cairt o Winter Olympics locations. Kintras that hae hostit ane Winter Olympics are shaded green, while kintras that hae hostit twa or more are shaded blue.

The host ceety for an Olympic Gemmes is usually chosen seven tae aicht years ahead o their celebration.[3] The process o selection is carried oot in twa phases that span a twa-year period. The prospective host ceety applies tae its kintra's Naitional Olympic Committee; if more than ane ceety frae the same kintra submits a proposal tae its NOC, the naitional committee typically holds an internal selection, syne only ane ceety per NOC can be presentit tae the Internaitional Olympic Committee for consideration. Ance the deadline for submission o proposals bi the NOCs is reached, the first phase (Application) begins wi the applicant ceeties asked tae complete a questionnaire regardin several key criteria relatit tae the organization o the Olympic Gemmes.[4] In this form, the applicants must give assurances that they will comply wi the Olympic Charter an wi any other regulations established bi the IOC Executive Committee.[3] The evaluation o the filled questionnaires bi a specialized group provides the IOC wi an owerview o each applicant's project an their potential tae host the Gemmes. On the basis o this technical evaluation, the IOC Executive Board selects the applicants that will proceed tae the candidature stage.[4]

Ance the candidate ceeties are selectit, they must submit tae the IOC a bigger an more detailed presentation o their project as pairt o a candidature file. Each ceety is thoroughly analyzed bi an evaluation commission. This commission will also visit the candidate ceeties, interviewin local offeecials an inspecting prospective venue steids, an submit a report on its findins ane month prior tae the IOC's final decision. Durin the interview process the candidate ceety must also guarantee that it will be able tae fund the Gemmes.[3] After the wirk o the evaluation commission, a leet o candidates is presentit tae the General Session o the IOC, which must assemble in a kintra that does nae hae a candidate ceety in the runnin. The IOC memmers gathered in the Session hae the final vote on the host ceety. Ance electit, the host ceety bid committee (together wi the NOC o the respective kintra) signs a Host Ceety Contract wi the IOC, offeecially becomin an Olympic host naition an host ceety.[3]

Bi 2016, the Olympic Gemmes will hae been hostit bi 44 ceeties in 23 kintras, but bi ceeties ootside Europe an North America on only aicht occasions. Syne the 1988 Simmer Olympics in Seoul, Sooth Korea, the Olympics hae been held in Asie or Oceania fower times, a sharp increase compared tae the previous 92 years o modern Olympic history. The 2016 Gemmes in Rio de Janeiro will be the first Olympics for a Sooth American kintra. No bids frae kintras in Africae hae succeeded.

The Unitit States haes hostit aicht Olympic Gemmes, fower Simmer an fower Winter, more than any ether naition. The Breetish caipital Lunnon haulds the distinction o hostin three Olympic Gemmes, aw Simmer, more than any ether ceety.

The ether naitions hostin the Simmer Games twice are Germany, Australie, Fraunce an Greece. The ether ceeties hostin the Simmer Gemmes twice are Los Angeles, Paris an Athens.

In addition tae the Unitit States, naitions hostin multiple Winter Gemmes are Fraunce wi three, while Swisserland, Austrick, Norawa, Japan, Canadae an Italy hae hostit twice. Among host ceeties, Lake Placid, Innsbruck an St. Moritz hae played host tae the Winter Olympic Gemmes more than ance, each hauldin that honor twice. The maist recent Winter Gemmes were held in Vancouver, Canada's third Olympics overall. The next Winter Gemmes will be in Sochi in 2014, Roushie's first Winter Olympics an seicont Olympics owerall.

Olympic Gemmes host ceeties[5]
Year Simmer Olympic Gemmes Winter Olympic Gemmes Youth Olympic Gemmes
Olympiad Host ceety No. Host ceety No. Host Ceety
1896 I Greece Athens, Greece
1900 II Fraunce Paris, France
1904 III Unitit States St. Louis, United States[lower-alpha 1]
1906 Intercalated[lower-alpha 2] Greece Athens, Greece
1908 IV Unitit Kinrick Lunnon, Unitit Kinrick [lower-alpha 3]
1912 V Swaden Stockholm, Swaden
1916 VI Germany Berlin, Germany
Cancelled because o Warld War I
1920 VII Belgium Antwerp, Belgium
1924 VIII Fraunce Paris, Fraunce I Fraunce Chamonix, Fraunce
1928 IX Netherlands Amsterdam, Netherlands II Swisserland St. Moritz, Swisserland
1932 X Unitit States Los Angeles, Unitit States III Unitit States Lake Placid, Unitit States
1936 XI Germany Berlin, Germany IV Germany Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
1940 XII Tokyo, Japan
Finland Helsinki, Finland →
Cancelled because o Warld War II
V Sapporo, Japan
Swisserland St. Moritz, Switzerland →
Germany Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
Cancelled because o Warld War II
1944 XIII Unitit Kinrick Lunnon, Unitit Kinrick →
Cancelled because o Warld War II
V Italy Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy
Cancelled because o Warld War II
1948 XIV Unitit Kinrick Lunnon Unitit Kinrick V Swisserland St. Moritz, Swisserland
1952 XV Finland Helsinki, Finland VI Norawa Oslo, Norawa
1956 XVI Australie Melbourne, Australie +
Swaden Stockholm, Sweden[lower-alpha 4][6]
VII Italy Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy
1960 XVII Italy Rome, Italy VIII Unitit States Squaw Valley, Unitit States
1964 XVIII Japan Tokyo, Japan IX Austrick Innsbruck, Austrick
1968 XIX Mexico Mexico Ceety, Mexico X Fraunce Grenoble, France
1972 XX Munich, West Germany XI Japan Sapporo, Japan
1976 XXI Canadae Montreal, Canadae XII Unitit States Denver, Unitit States
Austrick Innsbruck, Austrick
1980 XXII Moscow, Soviet Union XIII Unitit States Lake Placid, Unitit States
1984 XXIII Unitit States Los Angeles, Unitit States XIV Sarajevo, Yugoslavie
1988 XXIV Sooth Korea Seoul, Sooth Korea XV Canadae Calgary, Canadae
1992 XXV Spain Barcelona, Spain XVI Fraunce Albertville, Fraunce
1994 XVII Norawa Lillehammer, Norawa
1996 XXVI Unitit States Atlanta, Unitit States
1998 XVIII Japan Nagano, Japan
2000 XXVII Australie Sydney, Australia
2002 XIX Unitit States Salt Lake Ceety, Unitit States
2004 XXVIII Greece Athens, Greece
2006 XX Italy Turin, Italy
2008 XXIX Fowkrepublic o Cheenae Beijing, Cheenae[lower-alpha 5][7]
2010 XXI Canadae Vancouver, Canadae I (Simmer) Banner o Singapore Singapore
2012 XXX Unitit Kinrick London, Unitit Kinrick I (Winter) Austrick Innsbruck, Austrick
2014 XXII Roushie Sochi, Roushie II (Simmer) Fowkrepublic o Cheenae Nanjing, Cheenae
2016 XXXI Brazil Rio de Janeiro, Brazil II (Winter) Norawa Lillehammer, Norawa
2018 XXIII Sooth Korea Pyeongchang, Sooth Korea III (Simmer) Tae be determined
2020 XXXII Japan Tokyo, Japan III (Winter) Tae be determined
2022 XXIV Tae be determined IV (Simmer) Tae be determined
2024 XXXIII Tae be determined IV (Winter) Tae be determined

Notes

  1. Originally awarded to Chicago, but moved to St. Louis to coincide with the World's Fair.
  2. Nae recognized bi the IOC.
  3. Originally awarded tae Roum, but moved tae Lunnon efter Munt Vesuvius eruptit.
  4. Equestrian events were held in Stockholm, Sweden. Stockholm haed tae bid for the equestrian competition separately; it received its awn Olympic flame an had its awn formal invitations an openin an closin ceremonies, as wi aw its previous Gemmes.
  5. Equestrian events were held in Cheenae's Hong Kong. Although Hong Kong haes an independent Naitional Olympic Committee frae Cheenae, the equestrian competition wis an integral pairt o the Beijing Gemmes; it wis nae conductit unner a separate bid, flame, etc., as wis the 1956 Stockholm equestrian competition. The IOC wabsteid leets only Beijing as the host ceety.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "French an Inglish are the ofeecial leids for the Olympic Gemmes.", [1]."(..)
  2. "Overview of Olympic Games". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 4 June 2008. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Olympic Charter" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. pp. 72–75. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2009. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Choice of the host city". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2 April 2009. 
  5. "Olympic Games" (registration required). Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 April 2009. 
  6. "Official Report of the Equestrian Games of the XVIth Olympiad (Swedish & English)" (PDF). Los Angeles 1984 Foundation. Retrieved 3 September 2008. 
  7. "Beijing 2008". The International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 


External links[eedit | eedit soorce]

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