Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a resort toun in Bavarie, soothren Germany. It is the admeenistrative centre o the destrict o Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in the Oberbayern region, an the destrict is on the border wi Austrick.
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Garmisch an Partenkirchen wur separate touns for mony centuries, an still maintain quite separate identities.
Partenkirchen oreeginatit as the Roman toun o Partanum on the trade route frae Venice tae Augsburg an is first mentioned in the year A.D. 15. Its main street, Ludwigsstrasse, follaes the oreeginal Roman road.
Garmisch is first mentioned some 800 years later as Germaneskau ("German Destrict"), suggestin that at some point a Teutonic tribe teuk up settlement in the wastren end o the valley.
The valley came unner the rule o the Bishop o Freising an wis governed bi a bishop's representative kent as a Pfleger (caretaker or warden) frae Werdenfels Castle on a cliff north o Garmisch.
The discovery o Americae at the turn o the 16t century led tae a boom in shippin an a sharp decline in owerland trade, which plunged the region intae a centuries-lang economic depression. The valley floor wis swampy an difficult tae farm. Bears, wolves an lynxes wur a constant threat tae livestock. The population suffered frae periodic epidemics, includin several serious ootbreaks o bubonic plague. Adverse fortunes frae disease an crop failure occasionally led tae witch hysterie. Maist notable o these wur the notorious trials an executions o 1589-1596, in which 63 victims — mair than 10 percent o the population at the time — wur burned at the stake or garrotit.
Werdenfels Castle, whaur the accusit wur held, tried an executit, became an object o superstitious horror an wis abandoned in the 17t century. It wis lairgely torn doun in the 1750s an its stones uised tae build the baroque Neue Kirche (New Kirk) on Marienplatz, which wis completit in 1752. It replacit the nearbi Gothic Alte Kirche (Auld Kirk), pairts o which predatit Christianity an mey oreeginally hae been a pagan temple. Uised as a storehoose, airmory an haybarn for mony years, it haes since been re-consecratit. Some o its medieval frescoes are still visible.
Garmisch an Partenkirchen remained separate till their respective mayors wur forced bi Adolf Hitler tae combine the twa mercat touns in 1935 in anticipation o the 1936 Winter Olympic gemmes. The day, the unitit toun is casually (but incorrectly) referred tae as Garmisch, muckle tae the dismay o Partenkirchen's residents. Maist visitors will notice the slightly mair modren feel o Garmisch while the fresco-filled, cobblestaned streets o Partenkirchen affer a glimpse intae times past. Early forenuins an late efternuins in pleasant weather aften find local traffic stopped while the dairy cous are herdit tae an frae the nearby muntain meadaes.
Garmisch-Partenkirchen is on the Munich–Garmisch-Partenkirchen line an the Mittenwald Railway (Garmisch–Mittenwald–Innsbruck). It is the terminus o the Außerfern Railway tae Reutte in Tirol / Kempten im Allgäu an the Bavarian Zugspitze Railway (wi sections o rack railway) tae the Zugspitze, the heichest muntain in Germany. Regional services run ivery oor tae München Hauptbahnhof an Mittenwald an ivery twa oors tae Innsbruck Hauptbahnhof an Reutte. In addition there are special saisonal lang-distance services, includin ICEs, tae Berlin, Hamburg, Dortmund, Bremen an Innsbruck.
Several accessible hikin trails frae the toun are especially spectacular an cover baith the lower an heicher elevations.
In 1936 it wis the site of the Winter Olympic Gemmes, the first tae feature alpine skiin. A variety o Nordic an alpine Warld Cup ski races are held here, uisually on the Kandahar Track ootside toun. Traditionally, a ski jumpin contest is held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen on New Year's Day, as a pairt o the Four Hills Tournament (Vierschanzen-Tournee). The World Alpine Ski Championships wur held in Garmisch in 1978 an 2011.
It wis annoonced on December 7, 2007, that Garmisch-Partenkirchen is pairt o a Bavarian bid tae host the 2018 Winter Olympics, wi pairtner candidates Munich an Schönau am Königsee (near Berchtesgaden). The Winter Olympics wur last held in the German-speakin Alps in 1976 in nearbi Innsbruck, Austrick.
The George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies is an aa locatit in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. The Marshall Center is an internaitionally fundit an maistly U.S.-staffed learnin an conference center for govrenments frae aroond the warld, but primarily frae the umwhile Soviet Union an Eastren European kintras. It was established in June 1993, replacing the U.S. Army Roushie Institute. Near the Marshall Center is the American Airmed Forces Recreation Centers (Edelweiss Lodge and Resort) in Garmisch that serves U.S. an NATO military an their families. A number o U.S. troops an ceevilians are stationed in the toun tae provide logistical support tae the Marshall Center an Edelweiss Recreation Center.