Finland

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Republic o Finland
  • Suomen tasavalta (Finnish)
  • Republiken Finland (Swadish)
Banner Coat o airms
Anthem: 
Maamme (Finnish)
Vårt land (Swadish)
Our Land
Location o  Finland  (dark green)– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]
Location o  Finland  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

Caipital Helsinki.vaakuna.svg Helsinki
60°10′N 024°56′E / 60.167°N 24.933°E / 60.167; 24.933
Largest city caipital
Offeecial leids
Recognisit regional leids Sami (0.03%)
Demonym
Government Parliamentary republic[1]
 -  Preses Sauli Niinistö
 -  Prime Minister Jyrki Katainen
 -  Speaker o the Pairliament Eero Heinäluoma
Legislatur Eduskunta
Unthirldom
 -  Autonomy
within Roushie
29 Mairch 1809 
 -  Unthirldom
frae Soviet Roushie
6 December 1917 
 -  First recognized
bi Soviet Russia
4 Januar 1918 
 -  Jyned the European Union 1 Januar 1995 
Aurie
 -  Total 338,424 km2 (64th)
130,596 sq mi 
 -  Watter (%) 10
Population
 -  2013 estimate 5,454,444[2] (114t)
 -  2000 census 5,180,000
 -  Densitie 16/km2 (201st)
41/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate
 -  Total $197.476 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $36,395[3]
GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate
 -  Total $250.126 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $46,098[3]
Gini (2012) negative increase 25.9[4]
law
HDI (2013) Increase 0.892[5]
very heich · 21st
Currency Euro () (EUR)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Date format d.m.yyyy
Drives on the right
Cawin code +358
Internet TLD .fia
a. The .eu domain is an aa used, as it is shared wi ither European Union member states.

Finland (Finnish: Suomi), offeecially the Republic o Finland, (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta), is a Nordic kintra situatit in the Fennoscandie region o Northren Europe. It is bordered bi Swaden on the wast, Norawa on the north an Roushie on the east, while Estonie lies tae its sooth athort the Gulf o Finland.

Aroond 5.4 million fowk reside in Finland, wi the majority concentratit in the soothren region. It is the aicht lairgest kintra in Europe in terms o aurie an the maist sparsely populatit kintra in the European Union. Finland is a pairliamentary republic wi a central govrenment based in Helsinki an local govrenments in 342 municipalities. A tot o aboot ane hoondrid residents live in the Greater Helsinki aurie; (which includes Helsinki, Espoo, Kauniainen an Vantaa), an a third o the kintra's GDP is produced there. Ither lairger ceeties include Tampere, Turku, Oulu, Jyväskylä, Lahti, Kuopio an Kouvola.

Finland wis heestorically a pairt o Swaden an frae 1809 on, an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Roushie Empire. Finnish Declaration o Unthirldom frae Roushie in 1917 wis follaed bi a ceevil war, wars against the Soviet Union an Nazi Germany, an a period o offeecial neutrality during the Cauld War. Finland jyned the Unitit Naitions in 1955, the OECD in 1969, the European Union in 1995, an the eurozone syne its inception.

Finland wis a relative latecomer tae industrialisation, remaining a lairgely agrarian kintra until the 1950s. Thereafter, economic development wis rapid, Finland biggit an extensive welfare state an balanced between the East an the Wast in global economics an politics. The kintra taps continuously the internaitional comparisons o naitional performance. Finland ranks the best kintra in the warld in the 2010 Newsweek survey based on health, economic dynamism, education, political environment an quality o life. Finland haes also been ranked the seicont maist stable kintra in the warld an the first in the 2009 Legatum Prosperity ratin.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Antient Finland[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sauna in Enonkoski

.

Rock paintings in Astuvansalmi in Ristiina, the Soothren Savonia region.[6]

Finland mey be auldest byded in kintra o aa the Nordic kintras, gin the staid o Susiluola is as auld as jaloused - 130,000 year. Gin no, the auldest traces o human habitation in Finland is aboot 8500 BC, whan evidents o a hunter-gaitherir cultur hae been funn. Fowk seem tae hae settled mair aroond the 6t yearthoosan BC.
The Finnish Bronze Eild stairtit aroond 1500 BC, an the Airn Eild sum thoosan year efter that. The Airn Eild in Finland endit aroond 1200 AD. Atween the twa, there wis a great cultural growth, an graffs o the time shaw evidents o a sopheesticatit cultur, likely ruled ower bi a chieftanlike elite. Thare isnae onie evidents o state-formin at thair time.

Middle Eilds[eedit | eedit soorce]

In the monie haundowers o pouer an chynges o whit wis the dominant kinrick in Scandinavie in thir tymes, Finland nivir got the upper haund, an wis aye ruled ower bi ane o the ithir naitions, fer ordinar Swaden, tho eistern pairts wur aften pairt o Roushie territory. As a result o this, Swadish becam a mair heich status leid nor Finnish.

It wis an aa at this time that Finland wis convertit tae Christianity. Syne Wastren Europe at thair time wis Roman Catholic an Roushie wis Orthadox, it is eften said that at thair time Eastren Finland merked the mairch atween Catholic an Orthadox Christendom.

Eastron Finland wis the staid o monie fechts atween the Finns an Roushians - fer exemplar the war o 1495-7. Accordin tae Finnish fowklair, the dun-toun wis saufed durin a muckle Roushie seige bi an unco o God.

The 17t Yearhunner[eedit | eedit soorce]

As pairt o the Swadish Empire unner Gustav Adolphus, Finland jyned the Thirty Years War on the Protestant side. The Finnish cavalry, cried the Hakkapeliitat played a muckle pairt in monie o Adolphus' victories. In thir tymes, Swaden wis ane o Europe's maist important pouers, an her airmie wis ane o the best; aiblins the best in the warld, an the Hakkapeliitat wer an important factor in that; feared an respectit bi their faes.
In a releegious sense, the 17t yearhunner wis a tyme o Lutheran domination an strickness efter the Reformation. The law o Moses wis declared the law o the land in 1608, an the skeel o readin became mair widespread due tae efforts tae teach the haill fowk tae read the Bible an ithir releegious texts.
A gey bad hership atween 1697 an 1699 reducit the Finnish population bi sumwhar in the region o 30%, an no lang efter anithir lang war furder hammered the Finns wi mair trouble.

The 18t tae the 20t Yearhunner[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ower the 18t yearhunner, Finland wis twa tyme thirled bi Roushie, an a series o wars atween Roushie an Swaden followit. While pairt war annexed bi Roushie an the wars brocht misery tae the local fowk, Finland as pairt o Swaden wis haen sum muckle impruivments an aa - technological an social forbye, sic as the mair democratic reforms in parliament, or the makkin o the Empire's first hot air balloon in 1784 (anlie a year efter the device wis inventit in Fraunce)
Houmever, in 1771 Gustav III o Swaden teuk owerins o the kinrick, horsed oot the parliament an stairtit anithir, unsuccessfou war agin Roushie. Roushie agitatit naitionalist feelins in Finland tae try an set up an unthirlt Finnish state an turn Swaden's plans tapsalteerie, bot wi smaa success.
The Finnish War o 1808-9 saw Finland faa intae Roushian haunds, an it became a Grand Duchy o the Roushian Empire. The 19t yearhunner saw industrialisation (sic as minin, forestry an machin warkin) tak hauld o Finnish ceeties, tho the fowk as a haill would remain fer ordinar landward warkers until the mid 20t yearhunner.
A surge o naitionalism, aften leid-based, saw Finns stairt tae demand mair autonomy, an rejeck Swadish fer Finnish. A muckle pairt o this wis the publication o the naitional epic Kalevala in 1835. The process o naition biggin lairgley involvit the so cried "Leid Strife", whilk got monie Finns tae view thaimsels as pairt o Finnish naition, an stairtit tae want naethin tae dae wi Roushie ava. This, alang wi seemilar naitionalist movements in ithir pairts o the Empire, promptit a response o "Roushiefication" frae the authorities, whilk mainly servit tae hairden naitionalist feelin.
As a result o the 1905 Roushian Revolution, Finland wis grantit a parliament. Universal sufferage wis implementit, makkin Finland the first kintra in Europe tae gie wummin the vote.

Unthirldom an Ceevil War[eedit | eedit soorce]

In the wheen o confusion followin the Bolshevik takkin o pouer in Roushie in October 1917, it wis decidit that Roushie either cuilnae or shuildnae hae control ower the non-Roushian pairts o the Empire, an so the feck o thaim wer grantit unthirldom, Finland amang thaim. Finland became an unthirlt state fer the first tyme on the 6t o December 1917.
Frae Januar tae May 1918 a bitter ceevil war wis fechtit atween the bourgeois "Whites" led bi C.G.E. Mannerheim, an the communist "Reds". The Whites eventually won the war, tho it left a bitter legacy whilk didnae end suin, an causit diveesion fer monie year efterward. The economic devastation whilk the war haed causit wesnae owercum until 1925.

Finland atween the twa Wurld Wars[eedit | eedit soorce]

Efter the election o Kaarlo Juho Ståhlberg as Finland's first preses, the new republic haed a wheen o problems tae face. Ane o thir wis the issue o the Åland Islands, whilk wer owerwhelminly Swadish speakin an wantit tae return tae Swadish haunds. Houmever the Finns didnae want tae gie up the Islands, an offered the Islands unthirlt status as pairt o Finland. The Ålanders didna approve o thir, an so the League o Naitions wis cried in. The peacefu settlement o issue (muckle alang the lines the Finns wantit) wis ane o the League's gey few successes.
Relations wi the Soviet Union wernae gey guid atween the wars, despite the Treaty of Tartu in 1920. Incidents alang the border an, in 1932, Soviet restreections on Finnish shippin in the Gulf o Finland an Loch Lagoda (baith o whilk wer closed tae Finns in 1937).
Anithir problem wis the proto-facist Lapua Movement, whilk wis the result o naitionalist an anti-communist feelin left ower frae the Ceevil War. Efter a failed attempt tae tak pouer in 1932, the group wis banned. At thir tyme ther wis also a failed attempt tae introduce prohibition. The attempt lastit frae 1919 tae 1932. As wi the seemilar attempt in America, this failed an haed a gey bad effect on crime rates an drinkin cultur.

The Seicont Warld War[eedit | eedit soorce]

Anti-communist feelin wis still strang in Finland, an relation wi the USSR haed nevir been gey guid ava in onie case, an eikit till Finnish dreids fer their survivin as a fowk an naition (syne thay kent mair anent the Purges nor maist ithir kintras) meant that whan the war stairtit, the Finns an Soviets wer in opposeetion tae ilk ithir. Finland fechtit the Soviet Union twa tyme in the Seicont Warld War, firstly defendin thaimsels in the Winter War o 1939-40 an then, wi support frae Nazi Germany they carriet oot the Continuation War o 1941-44, in whilk they invatit pairts o wastron Roushie, tho they eventually lost o Petsamo, their ainlie ice-free hyne.
Eventually the USSR defeatit thaim, an unner armistice condeetions, they fecht agin Germany in the Lapland War o 1944-5 in whilk the Finns forced the Germans tae retreat tae yont Northin Finland an bak intae Norrowey, whilk at thir tyme wes thirlt tae Germany.

Efter the War[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1955 Finland jyned baith the Nordic Council an the Unitit Naitions an the European Free Trade Association in 1986. Finland faced sum muckle economic problems in the eirlie 1990s fer twa main reasons. Firstly ther wis the so cried "economic owerheat" frae they gey leeberal policies o the auchties; an seicont the dissoultion o the USSR (Finland's mucklemaist trade pairtner) in 1991. Thir problems wer lairlie solvit bi jynin the EU (European Union) 1995. The day Finland is ane o the maist weil-aff an heichlie educatit kintras in the warld.

Poleetics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Finland is a parliamentary democracy, an the preses the nou is Sauli Niinistö. Finland, like the lave o the Nordic kintras is kent fer haein a leeberal society an a gey guid welfare state. It is also ane o the maist free kintras, wi great unthirldom o the press, ceevil liberties, poleetical richts an accordin tae Transparency International is the least corrupt kintra in the warld. Finland wis also the first kintra tae gie wummin the richt tae vote.

Leids[eedit | eedit soorce]

Finland's offeecial leids is Finnish an Swadish, an forby thon, Sami leids is spak in northren pairts o Finland.

The muckle feck o Finnish fowk (92%) hae Finnish as their mithir leid. Aboot 5.5% hae Finland Swedish (kent as Finlandsvenska, whilk is a tait deeferant frae whit is spak in Swaden), an less nor 7,000 hae ane o the thrie Sami leids spak in Finland. Roushie an Estonian ar aslo spak bi gey smaa minorities. Forbye maist Finns are more nor a tait guid at Inglis, whilk they leir at schuill, an monie also hae French or German an aa.

Internaitional rankins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Organization Survey Rankin
Institute for Economics an Peace Global Peace Index 9 oot o 144
Unitit Naitions Development Program Human Development Index 12 oot o 182
Transparency Internaitional Corruption Perceptions Index 6 oot o 180
Warld Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 7 oot o 139

Fremmit Airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Fitmerks[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Umwhile a semi-presidential republic, it is nou a pairliamentary republic accordin tae David Arter, First Chair o Politics at Aiberdeen Varsity. In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008), he quotes Jaakko Nousiainen in "From semi-presidentialism to parliamentary government" (Scandinavian Political Studies 24 (2) pp. 95–109) as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". Accordin tae the Finnish Constitution, the preses has no possibility tae rule the govrenment wioot the meenisterial approval, an daes nae hae the pouer tae dissolve the pairliament unner his or her ain desire. Finland is actually representit bi its prime meenister, an nae bi its preses, in the Coincil o the Heids o State an Govrenment o the European Union. The 2012 constitution reduced the pouers o the preses even further.
  2. "VÄESTÖTIETOJÄRJESTELMÄ – REKISTERITILANNE – 30.12.2013" (in Finnish). Population Register Centre. Retrieved 17 October 2012. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Finland". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2013. 
  4. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income (source: SILC)". Eurostat Data Explorer. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  5. "Human Development Report 2010". United Nations. 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2010.  and "Human Development Index trends, 1980–2010". United Nations. 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  6. "The Rock paintings of Astuvansalmi at Ristiina". UNESCO World Heritage Centre (UNESCO). Retrieved 2007-01-23.