Tampere

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Tampere
Ceety
Tampereen kaupunki
View towards Tampere City Centre

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Manchester o the North, Manse (in Finnish)
Location o Tampere in Finland
Coordinates: 61°30′N 023°46′E / 61.500°N 23.767°E / 61.500; 23.767
Kintra Finland
Region Pirkanmaa
Sub-region Tampere
Government
 • Mayor Timo P. Nieminen
Area(2011-01-01)[1]
 • Ceety 689.59 km2 (266.25 sq mi)
 • Land 525.03 km2 (202.72 sq mi)
 • Water 164.56 km2 (63.54 sq mi)
Area rank 180t lairgest in Finland
Population (2013-08-31)[2]
 • Ceety 219,624
 • Rank 3rd lairgest in Finland
 • Density 0/km2 (0/sq mi)
 • Metro 340,000
Population bi native leid[3]
 • Finnish 94.9% (official)
 • Swadish 0.5%
 • Ithers 4.5%
Population bi age[4]
 • 0 tae 14 13.8%
 • 15 tae 64 70.6%
 • 65 or older 15.7%
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Municipal tax rate[5] 19%
Urbanisation 96.9%
Unemployment rate 10.1%
Website www.tampere.fi

Tampere (Swadish: Tammerfors) is a ceety in soothren Finland. It is the maist populous inland ceety in ony o the Nordic kintras. The ceety haes a population o 211,691 (31 Mairch 2010),[2] growin tae approximately 300,000 fowk in the conurbation an ower 340,000 in the metropolitan aurie.[6] Tampere is the third maist-populous municipality in Finland, efter the Greater Helsinki municipalities o Helsinki an Espoo. In 2007, the entire Pirkanmaa region haed aroond 470,000 residents, o which 230,000 wur employed, an a turnover o 25 billion euros.[7]

Tampere is locatit atween twa lakes, Näsijärvi an Pyhäjärvi. Syne the twa lakes differ in level bi 18 metres (59 ft), the rapids linkin them, Tammerkoski, hae been an important pouer source throughoot heestory, maist recently for generatin electricity. Tampere is dubbed the "Manchester o Finland" for its industrial past as the umwhile centre o Finnish industry, an this haes given rise tae its Finnish nickname "Manse" an terms such as "Manserock".[6][7][8]

Helsinki can be reached in 1.5 hours bi train an 2 hours bi caur. The distance tae Turku is approximately the same. Tampere Airport is the third-busiest airport in Finland, wi 800,000 passengers annually.[7]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tammerkoski in simmer.
The auld Finlayson wirks.
The Renaissance Revival Raatihuone (Ceety Haw), 1890; frae its balcony wis read the "red manifesto" in 1905.

Tampere wis foondit as a mercat place on the banks o the Tammerkoski channel in 1775 bi Gustav III o Swaden an fower years later, in 1779,[9] Tampere wis grantit full ceety richts. At this time, it wis a rather sma toun, consistin o anerlie a few square kilometres o land aroond the Tammerkoski.

Tampere grew as a major mercat toun an industrial centre in the 19t century. Durin the latter hauf o the 19t century Tampere haed amaist hauf o Finland's industrial labour. The toun's industrial nature in the 19t an 20t centuries gave it the nickname "Manchester o the North", Manse for short (in Finnish).

Tampere wis the centre o mony important poleetical events o Finland in the early 20t century. On November 1, 1905, durin the general strike, the famous Red Declaration wis proclaimed on the Keskustori, the central square o Tampere, subsequently leadin tae universal suffrage in Finland an the Tsar o Roushie grantin lairger freedoms tae Finns. In 1918, when Finland haed recently gained unthirldom, Tampere an aa played a major role, being ane of the strategically important scenes durin the Finnish Ceevil War (Januar 28 – Mey 15, 1918). Tampere wis a red stranghauld durin the war, wi Hugo Salmela in command. White forces captured Tampere, seizin aboot 10,000 Reid preesoners on Aprile 6.

Prevalent in Tampere's post-Warld War II municipal politics wis the so-cried Brithers-in-Airms Axis (aseveliakseli), the alliance o conservatives an social democrats against the communists an Agrarian pairty. Durin this era some o the maist renouned ceety managers o Tampere wur Erkki Napoleon Lindfors (who wis responsible for mony ambitious construction projects such as the Näsinneula touer an the construction o the suburb o Hervanta, Tampere's "dochter toun"), Pekka Paavola (who gained some notoriety in corruption scandals) an Jarmo Rantanen. Frae 2007 on, Tampere switched tae a new model o haein a mayor an fower deputy mayors, chosen for a periods o twa years. Timo P. Nieminen wis electit as the first mayor o Tampere for the years 2007–2009.

Efter Warld War II, Tampere wis enlairged bi joinin some neighbourin auries. Messukylä wis incorporatit in 1947, Lielahti in 1950, Aitolahti in 1966 an feenally Teisko in 1972. Tampere wis kent for its textile an metal industries, but these hae been lairgely replaced bi information technology an telecommunications durin the 1990s. The technology centre Hermia in Hervanta is hame tae mony companies in these fields.

Name[eedit | eedit soorce]

There hae been mony debates on the oreegin o the name Tampere. Ane theory is that it comes frae the Swadish wird damber, meanin "milldam". Anither speculation is that the name oreeginates frae the auncient Scandinavian wirds þambr ("thick bellied") an þambion ("swollen belly"), referrin tae the rapids, an accordin tae researchers, these kynds o references wur given tae name givin instances bi auncient Scandinavian hunters. Ither suggestions hae been the Swadish tamper-dagar, fasting days, an an' a' the Finnish wird tammi. meanin "oak".[10] Although the name Tampere or its Swadish coonterpairt's Tammer- pairt canna be completely confirmed, it is clear that the fors pairt in the Swadish name means "rapids".

Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tampere is the caipital o the Pirkanmaa region an is surroondit bi the municipalities o Kangasala, Lempäälä, Nokia, Orivesi, Pirkkala, Ruovesi an Ylöjärvi.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

On average, the snaw saison lasts 4 – 5 months: frae late November tae mid-Aprile.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Tampere region, or Pirkanmaa, which includes ootlyin municipalities, haes aroond 0.47 million residents, 0.23 million employed, an 25 billion euro turnower as o 2007.[7] Accordin tae the Tampere Internaitional Business Office, the aurie is strang in mechanical ingineerin an automation, information an communication technologies, an health an biotechnology, as well as pulp an paper industry an eddication. The Tampere region haes twa varsities an three polytechnics totalin 40,000 students. The unemployment rate is aroond 10%.

Eddication[eedit | eedit soorce]

There are fower institutions o heicher eddication in the Tampere aurie: twa varsities an twa polytechnics (Finnish: ammattikorkeakoulu‎). The varsities are Varsity o Tampere (UTA) (mair than 16,000 students) which is locatit richt next tae the ceety centre, an Tampere Varsity o Technology (mair than 12,000 students), locatit in Hervanta. The regional polytechnic is Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulu (the term "polytechnic" uised bi Finnish Meenistry o Eddication), which caws itsel in Inglis "Tampere University of Applied Sciences" (ca 10,000 students).[11] The Polis College o Finland, servin the whole o Finland in its field o specialization, is the ither polytechnic locatit in Tampere.

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Tampere Theatre.

Tampere is kent for its active cultural life. Some o the maist popular writers in Finland, such as Väinö Linna, Kalle Päätalo an Hannu Salama, hail frae Tampere. These are aw kent as writers depictin the lives o wirkin class fowk. An aw frae a wirkin class backgrund wis the famous poet Lauri Viita o the Pispala destrict (which is the oreeginal hame o Hannu Salama tae). Tampere an aw haes auld theatre traditions, wi such established institutions as Tampereen Työväen Teatteri, Tampereen Teatteri an Pyynikin Kesäteatteri, whilk is an open-air theatre wi the auldest revolvin auditorium in Europe. Tampereen Teatterikesä or Tampere Theatre Festival is an internaitional theatre festival held in Tampere ilka August.

Tampere is an aa kent for its Tampere Airt Museum, Tampere, Finland which featurt American airtist Richard Humann in 2004, for his exhibition entitled, Delicate Monster.

Tampere Film Festival, an internaitional short film festival, is held ivery Mairch. Tammerfest is Tampere's urban rock festival held ivery Julie.

Tampere is hame tae Tampere Philharmonic Orchestra. Tampere Music Festivals organises three internaitional muisic events: Tampere Jazz Happening each November, an in alternate years Tampere Vocal Music Festival an Tampere Biennale.

Tampere is hame tae the televeesion channel YLE TV2, wi its studios in the Tohloppi destrict, kent amang aw for such popular TV comedies as Tankki täyteen, Reinikainen an Kummeli.

A local fuid speciality is mustamakkara, which resembles black puddin o northren Ingland.

Releegion[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tampere haes a variety o different releegious services spannin frae traditional tae charismatic. There are an aa some Inglis speakin services. Tampere Inglis Service is an internaitional community affiliatit wi the Tampere Pentecostal Kirk. Inglis services o the Internaitional Congregation o Christ the Keeng (ICCK)] are organized bi the Anglican Kirk in Finland an the Lutheran Parishes o Tampere. The Catholic parish o the Holy Cross [12] an aa affers services in Finnish, Pols an Inglis. Ither kirks mey an aa hae Inglis speakin meenistries. Tampere is the centre o a LDS stake (diocese). Ither kirks in Tampere are Nokia Revival, Finnish Orthodox Kirk, Evangelical Free Kirk, an Baptist Kirk.

Sport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tampere's sportin scene is driven bi twa sports, ice hockey an fitbaa. The first Finnish ice hockey match wis played in Tampere, on the ice o Näsijärvi. Tampere is eiknamed the hametoun o Finnish hockey. Twa notably exceptional ice hockey teams exist in Tampere—Ilves an Tappara. They baith hae haed a great impact on Finnish ice hockey cultur an are amang the maist successfu teams in Finland. The Finnish ice hockey museum, an the first ice hockey arena tae be biggit in Finland, the Hakametsä arena, are baith locatit in Tampere. Association fitbaa is an aw a popular sport in Tampere. Ilves alane haes ower 4,000 players in its fitbaa teams, while Tampere boasts ower 100 fitbaa teams. Tampere an aa hostit some o the preliminaries for the 1952 Simmer Olympics. The ceety an aa hostit twa canoe sprint warld championships, in 1973 an 1983. In 1977, Tampere hostit the Junior Warld Rowin Championships. An aa basketbaw is popular in Tampere. The ceety haes three basketbaw teams wi big junior activity an ane o them, Tampereen Pyrintö, plays the heichest level an is a Finnish Champion 2010, 2011 an 2014.

Tampere hostit the 10t European Youth Olympic Festival frae 17 tae 25 Julie 2009.

Tampere hostit the 2010 World Ringette Championships frae 1 tae 6 November at Hakametsä arena.

Rivalry atween ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tampere ostensibly haes a lang-staundin mutual feud wi the ceety o Turku, the first caipital o Finland. This hostility is lairgely expressed in jokes in ane ceety aboot the ither; prominent targets are the traditional Tampere fuid, mustamakkara, the state o the Aura River in Turku, an the regional accents. Students at Tampere hae organized the Non-Turkuan Nation (Ei-Turkulainen Osakunta),[13] which syne 1997 haes made annual excursions tae Turku tae jump on the mercat square, doin their pairt tae undae the post-glacial rebund an push the ceety back unner the sea.[14]

Popular muisic[eedit | eedit soorce]

There is a lot o muisical activity in Tampere, especially in the realm o black metal, hivy metal and rock. Some of the mair popular baunds based in Tampere include Horna, Behexen, Negative, Sargeist, Circle o Ouroborus, Prevalent Resistance, Uniklubi, Lovex an Puk, wi some o the local black metal baunds garnerin a warldwide follaein. Tampere an aa haes an active electronic muisic scene, notably in the genres o electro, drum an bass an dubstep. Tampere haes been described as the "jungle caipital" o Finland.

Steids o interest[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Old Church (Vanha kirkko) on the edge o the Tampere Central Square.

The main tourist attraction is the Särkänniemi amusement pairk, which includes a dolphinarium an the landmark Näsinneula touer, topped bi a revolvin restaurant. Ither steids o interest are Tampere Cathedral, Tampere Ceety Library Metso ("wood grouse"), Kaleva Church (baith designed bi Reima Pietilä), the Tampere Hall for conferences an the Tampere Mercat Haw.

Tampere is an aa hame tae ane o the last museums in the warld dedicatit tae Vladimir Lenin. Lenin muivit tae Tampere in August 1905 an durin a subsequent Bolshevik conference in the ceety met Joseph Stalin for the first time. Lenin eventually fled Tampere (for Swaden) in November 1907 when being pursued bi the Roushie Okhrana. Lenin wad no return tae ony pairt o Roushie till ten years later, whan he heard o the stairt o the Roushie Revolution o 1917.

There are mony museums an galleries, includin:

Pispala[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main article: Pispala

Pispala is a ridge locatit atween the twa lakes, Näsijärvi an Pyhäjärvi. It uised tae hoose the majority o industrial labour in the late 19t an early 20t century, when it wis pairt o Suur-Pirkkala an its follaer Pohjois-Pirkkala. It wis a free aurie tae be biggit upon bi the wirkin class fowk wirkin in Tampere factories. It wis jyned tae Tampere in 1937. Currently it is a popular residential aurie an thegither wi neighbourin Pyynikki it forms an important historical aurie o Tampere.

Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]

The public transport netwirk athin Tampere consists exclusively o a bus netwirk. Atween 1948 an 1976 the ceety an aa haed an extensive trolleybus netwirk, which wis an aa the lairgest trolleybus seestem in Finland.[21] There are plans are being made for construction a licht rail seestem in the ceety tae replace some o the maist popular bus lines (see Tampere licht rail), as well as initiatin commuter rail service on the railroad lines connectin Tampere tae the neighbourin ceeties o Nokia an Lempäälä.[22]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tampere is twinned wi:

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Area by municipality as of 1 Januar 2011" (PDF) (in Finnish and Swedish). Land Survey of Finland. Retrieved 9 Mairch 2011. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "VÄESTÖTIETOJÄRJESTELMÄ REKISTERITILANNE 31.8.2013" (in Finnish and Swedish). Population Register Center of Finland. Retrieved 15 September 2013. 
  3. "Population according to language and the number of foreigners and land area km2 by area as of 31 Dizember 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 29 Mairch 2009. 
  4. "Population according to age and gender by area as of 31 Dizember 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 28 Apryle 2009. 
  5. "List of municipal and parish tax rates in 2011". Tax Administration of Finland. 29 November 2010. Retrieved 13 Mairch 2011. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 [1], The City of Tampere
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Tampere Economy, Tampere International Business Office
  8. Katko, Tapio S. and Juuti, Petri S. Watering the city of Tampere, publications of the 5th IWHA Conference, 2007. Available at the website of the city of Tampere.
  9. The Ceety O Tampere – Tampere in brief – History
  10. http://www.uta.fi/utain/2003s/16/6153.html
  11. TAMK. 22 Januar 2010. Tampere polytechnic. Retrieved 31 Januar 2010.
  12. "Pyhä Risti Seurakunta". Kolumbus.fi. Retrieved 3 Juin 2011. 
  13. "Ei-turkulainen Osakunta". Students.tut.fi. Retrieved 6 Mey 2009. 
  14. http://www.students.tut.fi/~eto/turunsanomat06.pdf
  15. http://www.tampere.fi/english/vapriikki/index.html
  16. http://www.tampere.fi/english/artmuseum/index.html
  17. "Lenin-museo". Lenin.fi. Retrieved 3 Juin 2011. 
  18. "Tampereen taidemuseon Muumilaakso - Front page". Inter9.tampere.fi. Retrieved 3 Juin 2011. 
  19. "Vakoilumuseo - Spy Museum". Vakoilumuseo.fi. Retrieved 3 Juin 2011. 
  20. "City of Tampere - Amuri museum of workers' housing". Tampere.fi. 10 Mey 2011. Retrieved 3 Juin 2011. 
  21. Alameri, Mikko. "Trolleybus City of Tampere". Raitio (in Finnish). Suomen Raitiotieseura. Retrieved 28 Februar 2009. 
  22. "Joukkoliikennejärjestelmävaihtoehdot - Vaikutusten arviointi ja suositus Tampereen kaupunkiseudun joukkoliikennejärjestelmäksi" (PDF). TASE 2025 (in Finnish). City of Tampere. March 2007. Retrieved 28 February 2009.