European Union

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European Union (EU)
Banner
(Banner)
Ryal motto: Ae mynd, monie kynd
(Laitin: In varietate concordia)
The Europen Union's airt in the warld
Member States 27
Offeecial leid 23
Commision Seat Brussels
Govrenment Intergovrenmental supranaitionalism
Aurie
 - Tot
 - % wattir

4,324,782 km²
3.08%
Population
 - 2007 Estimate
 - Densitie
 
494,070,000
58,789,194
112/km²
Foondin
 - Treatie o Rome
 - Maastricht Treatie
25 Mairch 1957
7 Februar 1992
Siller 13
Time zone UTC tae +2, Summer: UTC +1 tae +2
Anthem Ode ti Joy
(orchestral)
Internet TLD .eu

The European Union (EU) is a group o 28 member states that are locatit primarily in Europe.[1][2] The Union wis pitten thegither for cultural an economic ettils. Monie kintras in the Union bruiks the same siller, the euro.

The EU traces its origins frae the European Coal an Steel Community (ECSC) an the European Economic Community (EEC), formed bi the Inner Sax kintras in 1951 and 1958, respectively. In the intervenin years the commonty an its successors hae grown in size bi the accession o new member states an in pouer bi the addeetion o policy auries tae its remit. The Maastricht Treaty established the European Union unner its current name in 1993.[3] The latest major amendment tae the constitutional basis o the EU, the Treaty o Lisbon, came intae force in 2009.

The EU haes developed a single market through a standardised seestem o laws that apply in aw member states. Within the Schengen Aurie (which includes 22 EU an 4 non-EU states) passport controls hae been abolished.[4] EU policies aim tae ensur the free movement o fowk, guids, services, an caipital,[5] enact legislation in justice an home affairs, an maintain common policies on trade,[6] agricultur,[7] fisheries, an regional development.[8]

The monetary union wis established in 1999 and came intae full force in 2002. It is currently componed o 18 member states that uise the euro as thair legal tender. Through the Common Foreign an Security Policy the EU haes developed a role in freemit relations an defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the warld an represents itself at the Unitit Naitions, the WTO, the G8, an the G-20.

The EU is considered bi mony tae be a potential superpouer. Wi a combined population o ower 500 million indwallers,[9] or 7.3% o the warld population,[10] the EU in 2012 generatit a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) o 16.584 trillion US dollars, constitutin approximately 23% o global nominal GDP an 20% when measured in terms o purchasin pouer parity, which is the lairgest nominal GDP an GDP PPP in the warld.[11] The EU wis the recipient o the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize.[12]

Memmer states[eedit | eedit soorce]

UE-EU-ISO 3166-1.png

Memmers o the EU:[13]

Yeir o ingang: 1)1958 (founders), 2)1973, 3)1981, 4)1986, 5)1995, 6)2004, 7)2007, 8)2013.

* Eftir the cumin thegither o Germany in 1990, the umwhyl territorie o the GDR jyn'd the European Union.

Croatie wul lyk jyn the EU in 2009, Macedonie wis makkit a candidate kintra in 2006, an Turkey haes been a canidate kintra in 1999 altho thay didna corrieneuch till 2005.

Leids o the European Union[eedit | eedit soorce]

Offeicial leids o the European Union[eedit | eedit soorce]

The syn in the ingang o the European Pairliament biggin in Brussels is written in the 20 offeecial leids bruikit in the European Union as o Julie 2006. The offeicial leids o the European Union, as stipulatit in the amendit EEC Council: Regulation Nummer 1 determinin the leids ti be bruikit bi the European Economic Communitie o 1958-04-15,[14] ar: [1]

No aw naitional offeicial leids haes bin grantit the status o offeicial leids o the EU. Luxembourgish, an offeecial leid o Luxembourg syn 1984, haesna. Nor haes Turkish, an offeecial leid o Cyprus.

Regional an minoritie leids[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thar's monie mair leids that 's recognized bi the EU (in fak its the Cooncil o Europe, a different organization) as "Regional an Minority Leids". Thir includes the Scots leid an the Scots Gaelic leid as regional leids.

Siller[eedit | eedit soorce]

The creation o a European single siller acame an offeecial objective o the European Economic Community in 1969. However, it wis anly wi the advent o the Maastricht Treaty in 1993 that member states wur legally boond tae start the monetary union no later nor 1 Januar 1999. On this date the euro wis duly launched bi eleven o the then 15 member states o the EU. It remained an accoontin currency till 1 Januar 2002, when euro notes an coins wur issued an naitional currencies began tae phase oot in the eurozone, which bi then consisted o 12 member states. The eurozone (constituted bi the EU member states which hae adoptit the euro) haes syne grown tae 18 kintras, the maist recent bein Latvie which jyned on 1 Januar 2014.

Aw ither EU member states, except Denmark an the Unitit Kinrick, are legally boond tae jyn the euro[15] when the convergence criteria are met, however anly a few kintras hae set target dates for accession. Swaden haes circumventit the requirement tae jyn the euro bi nae meetin the membership criteria.[lower-alpha 1]

See an aa[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. In order tae meet the euro convergence criteria it is necessary first tae jyn the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, somethin Swaden haes declined tae dae: "ERM II". Danish Finance Ministry. 20 March 2009. Retrieved 26 December 2009. 

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Basic information on the European Union". European Union. europa.eu. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  2. "European". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 3 October 2011. "5 b. spec. Designating a developing series of economic and political unions between certain countries of Europe from 1952 onwards, as European Economic Community, European Community, European Union" 
  3. Craig, Paul; Grainne De Burca , P. P. Craig (2007). EU Law: Text, Cases and Materials (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-19-927389-8.  ; "Treaty of Maastricht on European Union". Activities of the European Union. Europa web portal. Retrieved 20 October 2007. 
  4. "Schengen area". Europa web portal. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  5. European Commission. "The EU Single Market: Fewer barriers, more opportunities". Europa web portal. Retrieved 27 September 2007. 
    "Activities of the European Union: Internal Market". Europa web portal. Retrieved 29 June 2007. 
  6. "Common commercial policy". Europa Glossary. Europa web portal. Retrieved 6 September 2008. 
  7. "Agriculture and Fisheries Council". The Council of the European Union. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  8. "Regional Policy Inforegio". Europa web portal. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  9. "First demographic estimates for 2009". 11 December 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2010. 
  10. "European Union reaches 500 Million through Combination of Accessions, Migration and Natural Growth". Vienna Institute of Demography. 
  11. "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2013 Edition". International Monetary Fund. October 2013. 
  12. "EU collects Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo". British Broadcasting Corporation. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  13. "European Countries". Europa web portal. Retrieved 18 September 2010. 
  14. Council Regulation (EC) No 1791/2006 of 20 November 2006, Official Journal L 363 of December 12, 2006. Retrieved on 2t Februar, 2007.
  15. Kuchler, Teresa (25 October 2006). "Almunia says 'undesirable' to act on Sweden's euro refusal". EUobserver.com. Retrieved 26 December 2006. 

Fremmit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

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