Finnish leid

Frae Wikipedia
Lowp tae: navigation, rake
Finnish

Suomi, suomen kieli

Spoken in:
Total spaekers: Approx. 6 million
Genetic
clessification:
Uralic

 Finno-Ugric
  Finno-Permic
   Finno-Volgaic
    Finno-Lappic
     Baltic-Finnic
      Finnish

Leid codes
ISO 639-3

ISO 639-1: ||fi
ISO 639-2:||fin
ISO 639-3: ||fin

The Finnish leid (cryed suomi in Finnish) is the heidmaist leid that is spoken in Finland. It belangs the Finno-Ugrian curn. Finnish is sib tae Estonian, the ae near kin it haes is (Hungarian the ither main Finno-Ugrian leid, but syne the twa "brainches" wis sindert some twa thoosan year syne, they arna gey seemilar at aw).

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Finnish developed frae the Finno-Ugric curn an bi the Middle Ages wis the leid spak bi maist Finns. Housome'er, syne Finland wis thirlt tae Swaden at the stairt o the Middle Ages, it haedna ony status in its ain kintra. Admeenistration wis aye cairiet oot in Swadish an aw releegious maiters wis in the Laitin. The law status o Finnish meant that it didna develop a scrieven form tilt the 16t century. Aw eddication, leetaratur etc. wis scrieven aither in Swadish or Laitin. As there wisna a staundart scrieven form it wis gey fickle for fowk tae learn it or tae uise it as a means o scrieven communication. Awtho it is true that mony leids wisna staundartised at this time, Finnish haed tae deal wi bein o sic a laich status an aw.

It teuk the wark o the Lutheran Beeshop Mikael Agricola in his translation o The New Testament intae Finnish tae gie it a staundart form. Syne a central pynt o the Reformation wis the settin furth o the Bible in vernacular leids, Agricola wis keen tae gie the Finns the Screeptur in their ain leid. His phonetic spellin seestem wisna haily conseestant, but it gied Finnish a framewark that the current seestem is taen frae. Maugre the wark o Agricola, Finnish still haedna ony offeecial status at the stairt o the 19t century, as Swadish wis still uised in aw offeecial spheres, includin eddication. Housome'er, whan the Finnish naitional epic Kalevala wis setten furth in 1835, it raised a wheen o naitional speerit , includin the hankerin efter the upbiggin an promotion o the Finnish leid. As fowk becam mair determined tae uise Finnish, it grew an slawly becam the dominant leid in government an eddication, achievin offeecial status in 1863. The strauchle tae gie a heize the Finnish leid frae its unco law status in the 19t Cntury is kent as the Finnish Leid Strauchle.

The day it is the maist uised leid in Finland (spoken bi 91.7% o the kintra), an alang wi Swadish is ane o the twa offeecial leids o that kintra.

Spellin an Soondin[eedit | eedit soorce]

Finnish uises a phonetic spellin seestem. Ilka soond is shawn bi ae letter an ilka letter is soondit.

Consonants[eedit | eedit soorce]

Finnish haes 13 consonants - they are soondit:

D like the d in dae. It niver stairts a wird that is o Finnish oreegin, an it disna end them forby (e.g. taide, that means airt)

G anerly comes efter n. The ng is soondit as in lang ( sangen -gey)

H like h in haver, but hairder (heti - at ance, Lahti - a Finnish clachan)

J like y in yett (ja - an, kirja - beuk)

K like k in ken (koira - dug)

L like l in lang (talo - hoose)

M like m in maun (huonompi - waur)

N like n in nae, but afore g an k as in lang (niin - sae, sangen - gey)

P like p in poke (lapsi - bairn)

R rowed as it is in Scots (raha - siller)

S like s in sned (iso - muckle)

T like t in tae (musta - black)

V like v in vane (voi - butter)

B, C, F, Sh an ithers anerly hap in a tait o fremmit soorces, an is soondit mair or less as in the oreeginal. For ordinar, but, Finns tends tae adapi wirds that's brocht in tae their ain soond seestem

thus the Inglis wird bomb is adaptit tae pommi in Finnish.

Vowels[eedit | eedit soorce]

A like a in Aibertay (asua - tae bide)

E like e in ken (hevonen - cuddy)

I like i in nip (ihminen - wicht)

O like aw in waw (olla - tae be)

U like u in buit(?) (hupsu - glaikit)

Y like u in French entendu or the German ü. Gin ye shape yer mooth as if tae say oo an syne ettle tae say the cutty i in nip ye'll no be faur wrang. (yksi - ane)

Ä like a in hat (äkkiä - suddent)

Ö like er in Erse (tyttö - lassie)

Dooble Letters[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ilka letter is soondit in Finnish, includin dooble consonants an dooble vouels.

kuka' means wha; kukka means flouer (here the twa k soonds is a tait like in tick coat).

katua means tae regret; kaatua means tae faw (here the dooble vouel maks the a soond langer)

muta (glaur), mutta (but, but can mean ither an aw), muuttaa (tae chynge).

Stress[eedit | eedit soorce]

The stress aye faws on the first seelable. Sae the caiptial ceety o Finland, Helsinki, in soondit Helsinki an no Helsinki as fremit fowk aften cries it. In compoond wirds (that Finnish haes mony o), the first seelable o ilka pairt taks the stress.

Grammar[eedit | eedit soorce]

Finnish grammar is gey complicate an fickle tae learn. For exemplar, it haes 15 cases, that's a wheen mair nor maist leids that for ordinar haes aicht or fewer. Insteid o uisin preposeetions sic as tae, frae an in as maist leids daes, Finnish uises a wheen o suffixes for tae shaw case. Thir is eikit til noons, pronoons, adjectives an infinitives, that there is fower o. It haes 15 equeevelant plural forms an aw, that micht need consonant or vouel chynges an aw!

Airticles[eedit | eedit soorce]

Unlike the muckle feck o leids, Finnish haesna airticles o ony kynd, definite or indefinite. Sae the wird voileipä can mean a piece, the piece or juist piece, lippenin on the context.

Gender[eedit | eedit soorce]

Finnish haesna ony grammatical genders, an it disna mak ony disteenction atween "he" an "she". The pronoon hän is uised for the baith.

Exemplars[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Kyllä - Aye
  • Ei - Nae
  • Olkaa hyvä - Please
  • Kiitos - Thank ye
  • Hyvää huomenta - Guid mornin
  • Hyvää päivää - Guid efternuin
  • Hyvää iltaa - Guid forenicht
  • Hyvää yötä - Guid nicht
  • Kuinka voitte? - Whit like?
  • Kiitos hyvin. Entä te? - Gey weel, thanks. An yersel?

See Forby[eedit | eedit soorce]

Fremmit Airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]