Ganja, Azerbaijan

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Ganja
Gəncə
Ceety

Seal
Ganja is located in Azerbaijan
Ganja
Ganja
Coordinates: 40°40′58″N 46°21′38″E / 40.68278°N 46.36056°E / 40.68278; 46.36056
Kintra  Azerbaijan
Government
 • Mayor Elmar Valiyev
Area
 • Total 110 km2 (40 sq mi)
Elevation +408 m (1,339 ft)
Population (2009) census data[1]
 • Total 313,300
 • Density 2,848/km2 (7,380/sq mi)
Time zone GMT+4 (UTC+4)
 • Summer (DST) GMT+5 (UTC+5)
Website www.ganca.net

Ganja (Azerbaijani: Gəncə) is Azerbaijan's seicont-lairgest ceety wi a population o aroond 313,300.[1][2][3] It wis namit Yelizavetpol (Roushie: Елизаветполь‎) in the Roushie Empire period. The ceety gained its oreeginal name - Ganja, in atween 1920-1935 durin the USSR period. Housomeivver, its name wis chyngit again an cawed Kirovabad (Roushie: Кировабад‎) in the USSR period frae 1935 tae 1991. Feenally, the ceety regained the oreeginal name efter Azerbaijan's unthirldom in 1991.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Oreegin o the name[eedit | eedit soorce]

Modren historians believe that the name Ganja (گنجه / Ganjeh) derives frae the New Persie ganj (گنج: "treasure, treasury") an suggests that the ceety existit in pre-Islamic times an wis likely foondit in the 5t century A.D.[4] The aurie in which Ganja is locatit wis kent as Arran frae the 9t tae 12t century; its urban population spak mainly in the Persie leid.[5][6]

Pre-1500[eedit | eedit soorce]

Shah Abbas Mosque.

Accordin tae medieval Arab sources, the ceety o Ganja wis foondit in 859-60 bi Mohammad b. Khaled b. Yazid b. Mazyad, the Arab govrenor o the region in the reign o the caliph Al-Mutawakkil, an so-cried acause o a treasure unearthed there. Accordin tae the legend, the Arab govrenor haed a dream whaur a voice tauld him that there wis a treasure hidden unner ane o the three hills aroond the aurie where he camped. The voice tauld him tae unearth it an uise the money tae foond a ceety. He did so an informed the caliph aboot the money an the ceety. The Caliph made Mohammad the hereditary govrenor o the ceety on a condition that he wad give the money he foond tae the caliph.[7]

Foondation o the ceety bi Arabs is confirmed bi the medieval historian Movses Kagankatvatsi, who mentions that the ceety o Ganja wis foondit in 846-47 in the canton o Arshakashen b the son of Khazr Patgos, “a furious an merciless man”.[8]

Historically an important ceety o the Sooth Caucasus, Ganja haes been pairt o Sassanid empire, Great Seljuk Empire, Atabegs of Azerbaijan, Khwarezmid Empire, Il-Khans,[9] Timurids,[10] Jalayirids,[11] Qara Qoyunlu,[12] Ak Koyunlu,[13][14] the Safavid, the Afsharid, the Zand an the Qajar empires o Persie/Iran, but eften ruled locally bi the khans/dukes o the Ganja Khanate. Ganja is an aa the birthplace o the famous poet Nizami Ganjavi

The fowk o Ganja experienced a temporary cultural decline efter an earthquake in 1139, when the ceety wis taken bi keeng Demetrius I o Georgie an its gates taken as trophies, an again efter the Mongol invasion in 1231. The ceety wis revived efter the Safavids came tae pouer. Ceety wis an aa managed bi Ottomans atween 1578–1603 an 1724-1735.

16t-19t centuries[eedit | eedit soorce]

For a short period, Ganja wis renamed Abbasabad bi Shah Abbas efter war against the Ottomans. He built a new ceety 8 km tae the soothwast o the auld ane, but the name chyngit back tae Ganja durin the time.[15] Durin the Safavid rule, it wis the caipital o the Karabakh (Ganja) beylerbey,[16] ane o the fower such admeenistrative units an principalities. In 1747, Ganja became the center o the Ganja Khanate.

Accordin tae the October 1813 Gulistan Treaty, the Ganja Khanate, thegether wi maist o Azerbaijan, wis recognized as pairt o Roushie Empire efter Persie's defeat in the Persie-Roushie wars except Persian occupation atween 1826-1827.[17] It wis renamed Elizavetpol (Roushie: Елизаветполь) efter the wife o Alexander I o Roushie, Elizabeth, an in 1868 became the caipital o Elizavetpol Govrenorate. Elizavetpol wis an uyezd o Tiflis Govrenorate afore 1868. The Roushie name wis no acceptit bi Azerbaijanis who continued tae caw the ceety Ganja.[18]

20t century[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1918, Ganja became the temporary caipital o the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, at which point it wis renamed Ganja again, till Baku wis recaptured frae the Breetish backed Centrocaspian Dictatorship. In Aprile 1920, the Red Airmy occupee'd Azerbaijan. In Mey 1920, Ganja wis the scene o an abortive anti-Soviet rebellion, durin which the ceety wis hivily damaged bi fechtin atween the insurgents an the Red Airmy.[19] In 1935, Joseph Stalin renamed the ceety Kirovabad efter Sergei Kirov.[20] In 1991, Azerbaijan re-established its unthirldom, an the auncient name o the ceety wis given back.[21] For mony years the 104t Guards Airborne Diveesion o the Soviet Airborne Troops wis based in the ceety.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Climate data for Ganja
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average heich °C (°F) 6.5
(43.7)
6.8
(44.2)
11.9
(53.4)
19.2
(66.6)
23.4
(74.1)
27.9
(82.2)
31.4
(88.5)
29.9
(85.8)
26.0
(78.8)
19.3
(66.7)
12.6
(54.7)
8.3
(46.9)
18.60
(65.48)
Average laich °C (°F) −2.3
(27.9)
−1.2
(29.8)
2.2
(36.0)
7.7
(45.9)
12.2
(54.0)
16.3
(61.3)
19.5
(67.1)
18.3
(64.9)
15.2
(59.4)
9.2
(48.6)
4.5
(40.1)
0.0
(32.0)
8.47
(47.24)
Precipitation mm (inches) 10
(0.39)
17
(0.67)
32
(1.26)
30
(1.18)
42
(1.65)
46
(1.81)
23
(0.91)
18
(0.71)
16
(0.63)
32
(1.26)
14
(0.55)
18
(0.71)
298
(11.73)
Avg. precipitation days 4 5 5 6 9 7 3 4 3 6 3 4 59
Source: Warld Meteorological Organisation (UN) [22]

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

The economy o Ganja is pairtially agricultural, pairtially tourist based, wi some industries in operation. Ore minerals extractit frae nearbi mines supply Ganja's metallurgical industries, which produces copper an alumina.[23] There are porcelain, silk an fuitwear industries. Ither industries process fuid, grapes an cotton frae the surroondin fermlands.

The ceety haes ane o the largest textile conglomerates in Azerbaijan an is famous for a fabric named Ganja silk, which received the heichest marks in the mercats o neighborin kintras an the Middle East.[21][24]

Sports[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety haes ane professional fitbaa team competin in the top-flicht o Azerbaijani fitbaa - FK Gäncä, umwhile kent as Kəpəz Gəncə currently playin in the Azerbaijan Premier League.[25]

International relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ceety Kintra
Ankara Turkey Turkey
Olomouc Czech Republic Czech Republic
Derbent Roushie Roushie
Rustavi Georgie (kintra) Georgie
Newark, New Jersey Unitit States Unitit States
Izmir Turkey Turkey
Moscow Roushie Roushie
Dnipropetrovsk Ukraine Ukraine
Kars Turkey Turkey
Dushanbe Tajikistan Tajikistan
Eskişehir Turkey Turkey[26]

[27]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 The State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan
  2. The Ganja State Historical-Cultural reserve
  3. В Азербайджане численность населения достигла 8 млн. 922 тыс. человек (Roushie)
  4. Encyclopedia Iranica, "Ganja", C. Edmund Bosworth Archived 23 August 2011 at WebCite
  5. Ростислав Борисовч Рыбаков (1995). Восток в средние века. ISBN 978-5-02-017711-6. 
  6. Дьяконов, Игорь Михайлович. Книга воспоминаний. Издательство "Европейский дом", Санкт-Петербург, 1995., 1995. - ISBN 978-5-85733-042-5. cтр. 730-731 Igor Diakonov. The book of memoirs.
  7. V.Minorsky. A History of Shirvan and Derbent.
  8. History of the Caucasian Albanians by Movses Dasxuranci, C.J.F. Dowsett trans. (London 1961), chapter 21.
  9. Iran. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 17, 2007
  10. Timurid Dynasty. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 16, 2007
  11. Jalayirid. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 17, 2007
  12. Kara Koyunlu. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 15, 2007
  13. Ak Koyunlu. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 17, 2007
  14. Aznet.org: Ganja's History
  15. Seyyaf Sednik oqli Pashayev. "The Monuments of Ganja Khanate of the Period form 1606 - 1804". Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  16. "Beglerbeg" in Cyclopædia dictionary, (ed. Ephraim Chambers), First Volume, London: Printed for J. and J. Knapton (and 18 others), 1728, p. 95 (accessed March 17, 2007)
  17. John F. Baddeley, "The Russian conquest of the Caucasus", London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1908, p. 67, citing "Tsitsianoff's report to the Emperor: Akti, ix (supplement), p. 920".
  18. Tadeusz Swietochowski (2004). Russian Azerbaijan, 1905-1920: The Shaping of a National Identity in a Muslim Community. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52245-8. 
  19. Charles van der Leeuw (2000-07-04). Azerbaijan: a quest for identity : a short history. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-312-21903-1. 
  20. Gəncənin tarixi... (Azerbaijani)
  21. 21.0 21.1 Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Azerbaijan: Ganja's History
  22. "World Weather Information Service – Ganja". United Nations. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  23. Ganja on Cities & Sites
  24. Gəncə Dövlət Universitetinin Riyaziyyat-İnformatika fakültəsi: GƏNCƏNİN TARİXİ (Azerbaijani)
  25. Гянджа сегодня (Roushie)
  26. [1]
  27. Cities in the Czech Republic and Azerbaijan to Become Sister

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]