Dushanbe (Tajik: Душанбе, Dushanbe; Dyushambe till 1929, Stalinabad till 1961), population 679,400 fowk (2008 est.), is the caipital an lairgest ceety o Tajikistan. Dushanbe means "Monday" in Tajik, an the name reflects the fact that the ceety grew on the site o a village that originally wis a popular Monday marketplace.
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Situatit on the confluence of twa rivers, Varzob an Kofarnihon, Dushanbe(دوشنبه) is the caipital o Tajikistan. Although archaeological remnants datin tae the 5t century BC hae been discovered in the aurie, there is little tae suggest that Dushanbe wis mair than a smaa village till aroond 80 years ago. In 1920, the last Emir of Bukhara briefly tuik refuge in Dushanbe (then cawed Dyushambe) efter being owerthrown bi the Bolshevik revolution. He fled tae Afghanistan efter the Red Airmy conquered the aurie the next year.
Dushanbe, which means "Monday" in Persian,فارسی, developt on the site o a Monday marketplace village, Dyushambe-Bozor, an its umwhile name Dyushambe wis a Roussified version o the wird meanin "Monday" in Persian (du-shanbe frae du twa + shanbe Seturday, lit. "seicont day efter Seturday"). Follaein the Red Airmy victory in Central Asie the village wis upgradit tae toun in 1925 an made the caipital o the newly creatit Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik ASSR). Efter the transformation o Tajik ASSR tae Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR) in 1929, Dyushambe wis renamed Stalinabad, after Joseph Stalin. As pairt o Nikita Khrushchev's de-Stalinization initiative, the ceety wis renamed Dushanbe in 1961.
The Soviets transformed the aurie intae a centre for cotton an silk production, an relocatit tens o thoosans o fowk tae the ceety frae aroond the Soviet Union. The population an aa increased wi thoosans o ethnic Tajiks migratin tae Tajikistan follaein the transfer o Bukhara an Samarkand tae the Uzbek SSR. A peaceful an relatively prosperous ceety unner Soviet rule, Dushanbe wis home to a university and the Tajik Academy of Sciences. Severe riotin occurred in Februar 1990, efter it wis rumored that Moscow planned tae relocatit tens o thoosans o Armenian refugees tae Tajikistan. Dushanbe riots wur primarily fueled bi concerns aboot hoosin shortages for the Tajik population, but they coincidit wi a wave o naitionalist unrest that swept Transcaucasie an ither Central Asian states during the twilicht o Gorbachev's era. The ceety wis badly damaged as a result o the Civil War in Tajikistan (1992–1997) that sprang up in the naition shortly efter its independence. Houever resurgences in the Tajik economy hae transformed Dushanbe intae a rapidly graein commercial, cultural an industrial center. Mony multi-story apartment an office buildings wur constructit an the ceety wis bonnified during this period. Monuments an statues commemoratin the ceety's Persian an Iranian past wur erectit.
Dusanbe is currently made up o: 83.4% Tajiks, 9.1% Uzbeks, 5.1% Russians, 2.4% ither.
Dushanbe is dividit intae the follaein destricts:
- Abu Ali Ibn Sina
- Ismail Somoni
Despite the fact that it is locatit several hunders o miles away frae ony lairge body o water, Dushanbe features a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa). The simmers are hot an dry an the winters are chilly, but no cold. The climate is damper than ither Central Asian caipitals, wi an average annual rainfall well ower 500 millimetres (20 in) but is still hichtlie continental an haes the hot, dry simmers typical o the region. Winters are no as cold as further north awin tae the shieldin o the ceety bi mountain frae extremely cold air frae Siberie.
Coal, lead, an arsenic are mined nearbi in the ceeties o Nurek an Kulob allouin for the industrialization o Dushanbe. The Nurek Dam, the warld's hichtest as o 2010, generates 95% of Tajikistan's electricity, an anither dam, the Roghun Dam, is planned on the Vakhsh River. A leadin cotton textile center, Dushanbe an aa produces silk, machinery, electrical appliances, clothin, leather guids, tractor pairts, an foodstuffs. The ceety o Dushanbe is nou hame tae a number o modern telecommunications, aeronautic an ither business corporations addin vitality tae its economy. Tourism an ecotourism tae the Dushanbe region is a component o the ceety's service industry, which includes shoppin centers, cafes, restaurants, an hotels. Museums an theatres add a cultural element tae the economy.
Buildings an attractions
- Dushanbe Airport
- Haji Yakoub Mosque
- Dushanbe Synagogue (destroyed in summer 2008)
- Museum of Ethnography
- Tajikistan National Museum (Tajik Unified Museum)
- Naitional Museum o Antiquities o Tajikistan
- Vahdat Palace
- Palace of Nations
- Dushanbe Zoo
- Botanical Garden
- Dushanbe Opera
- Dushanbe Circus
- Gurminj Museum of Musical Instruments (Gurminj Museum)
Mony o the maist important universities an institutes are based in Dushanbe:
- Tajik State Naitional University
- Tajikistan Humanitarian Internaitional University
- Agricultural University of Tajikistan
- Tajik State Medical University
- Tajik State Pedagogical University
- Tajik State University o Commerce
- Tajik University o Law, Business an Politics
- Tajik-Roushie Slavic University
- Tajikistan University o Technology
- Tajikistan-Roushie Modern University
- Technical University o Tajikistan
The ceety is served bi Dushanbe Airport.
Currently, Dushanbe haes 14 sister ceeties.
- Template:Kintra data Zambia Lusaka, Zambie (1966)
- Sana'a, Yemen (25 Juin 1967)
- Monastir, Tunisie (24 November 1967)
- Klagenfurt, Austrick (1972)
- Lahore, Pakistan (15 September 1976)
- Boulder, USA (8 Mey 1987)
- Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan (13 Julie 1991)
- Reutlingen, Germany (5 October 1991)
- Saunt Petersburg, Roushie (6 October 1991)
- Shiraz, Iran (16 Februar 1992)
- Minsk, Belaroushie (21 Julid 1998)
- Ürümqi, Cheenae (10 September 1999)
- Tehran, Iran (12 Mairch 2001)
- Ankara, Turkey (11 December 2003)
- D. Saimaddinov, S. D. Kholmatova, an S. Karimov, Tajik-Russian Dictionary, Academy or Sciences or the Republic or Tajikistan, Rudaki Institute of Language and Literature, Scientific Center for Persian-Tajik Culture, Dushanbe, 2006.
- Dushanbe in Dictionary of Geographic Names (Roushie)
- Francis Joseph Steingass, A Comprehensive Persian-English Dictionary, on-line edition
- Ethnic rioting in Dushanbe, New York Times, 13 February 1990. Retrieved 18 October 2008