|Population (1999 census):||197,500|
Table o contents
Airchaeological excavations indicate that fowk hae livit in the region syne at least the Bronze Age (3rd or 2nt millennia BC). The area aroond Lankaran haets fertile soil, rich watter reserves an a humid subtropical climate wi a maximum annual precipitation o 1,600 tae 1,800 mm, the heichest precipitation in Azerbaijan, lendin tae abundant agricultur, cattle-breedin, gardenin, fishin, bee-keeping an silk production. Blacksmith, copper-smith, pottery an ither trades hae lang been well established too. The aurie's development wis an aw aidit bi its location as a point o communication atween auncient empires, leadin tae caravan trade funnelled alang the Caspian Sea coast.
Atween 1747 an 1813 Lankaran wis the main ceety o the Talysh Khanate. Follaein the 1813 Gulistan Treaty, the northren aurie o the khanate wis occupeed bi Roushie, then the remainder wis seized in the final Russo-Persie war o 1826-1828. The 1828 Treaty o Turkmenchay left the aurie athin the Roushie empire an the khanate wis abolished. Durin the 19t century Lankaran's exports (rice, silk, vegetables, firth an fish) wur aimit mainly at the Roushie mercat. Durin the 20t century the tea-cultivation an processin industry became important in the rayon.
The aurie wis briefly the centre o a Bolshevik-inspired Mughan Soviet Republic durin 1919. History repeatit itsel somewha in 1993. Durin the period o instability that follaeed Azerbaijan's 1991 unthirldom frae the USSR, Lankaran an surroondin rayons wur briefly declared the Talysh-Mughan Autonomous Republic, but this anerlie survivit atween Juin an August 1993. The day the region is an integral pairt o the Azerbaijan Republic.
The region haes a vast aurie o naitional pairks, whaur a variety o fauna an flora are preservit. Gizil-Agach State Reserve hosts over 250 kinds of plants, 30 species o fish an mair than 220 kynds o birds. Lankaran is an aw kent for Parrotia persica, or ironwood. It is naturally grown in the region an coud be seen in Hirkan National Pairk. Local meeth haes it that it is the anerlie firth that sinks in watter, hence the name (ironwood). Historically it haes been uised for heatin, syne it burns for a lang time an is no easily extinguished. The Persie leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) subspecies o the leopard, lives in the naitional pairk as well.
- Liman (ceety)
- Ashagi Nuvadi
- Isti Su
- Total population :197.500
- Percentage urban population : 39%
- Percentage rural population : 61%
Notable natives 
- Samad bey Mehmandarov
- Azi Aslanov
- Allahshukur Pashazadeh, Sheikh ul-Islam an Grand Mufti o the Caucasus