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Official seal of Zenica
Zenica is located in Bosnie an Herzegovinae
Location athin Bosnie an Herzegovinae
Coordinates: 44°12′N 17°56′E / 44.200°N 17.933°E / 44.200; 17.933
Kintra Bosnie an Herzegovinae
 • Municipality presesHusejin Smajlović (SDA)
 • Ceety499.7 km2 (192.9 sq mi)
316 m (1,037 ft)
 • Density293/km2 (760/sq mi)
 • Urban
127,334 (30 Juin 2,007)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
Postal code
Area code(s)+387 32

Zenica (Serbie Cyrillic: Зеница, [zɛ̂nitsa] ( listen)) is an industrial ceety in Bosnie an Herzegovinae. It is the caipital o the Zenica-Doboj Canton o the Federation o Bosnie an Herzegovinae entity. Zenica is locatit aboot 70 km (43 mi) north o Sarajevo an is situatit on the Bosna river, surroondit bi muntains an hills.

The toun's Stara Čaršija (auld quarter) conteens several attractions, includin the umwhile synagogue, datin frae 1906, which is nou the Ceety Museum an Airt Gallery. Thare is an aa the toun mosque (Čaršijska Džamija), an Austrian funtain an an auld bey's ferm hoose (Hadžimazića Kuća).

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Auncient history[eedit | eedit soorce]

The urban pairt o the day's Zenica wis formed durin several specific periods which can be chronologically datit tae the time o Neolithic community, Illyrian auld touns ruins, Roman Municipium Bistua Nova, an the maist important airchaeological findin; an early Christian dooble basilica datin frae the 2nt tae 4t century, ane o twa that hae sae far been identifeed in Europe. Ruins o a substantial auncient dounset wur foond no far frae Bilimišće (a suburb on the sooth side o the toun) an close bi the veelages o Putovici an Tišina, wi steids lik a Villa Rustica, baths, pagan temples amang ither structurs.

Medieval times[eedit | eedit soorce]

Kent bi the Romans as Bistua Nova, the toun became kent as Bilino Polje (Bilin's Field), Brod an feenally teuk its modren name o Zenica frae 20 Mairch 1436. Durin the Middle Ages, the toun wis important in the govrenance o the Kinrick o Bosnie, in pairticular unner Ban Kulin in the 12t Century. Nearbi wur the stane fortress o Vranduk, the residence o the Keengs o Bosnie at Bobovac an the veelage o Janjici, whaur the Did, heid o the Bosnie Kirk residit. The nearbi veelages o Puhovac an Pojske are the steid o several Stećak tombstanes, unique tae Bosnie an Herzegovinae an pairts o Serbie, Croatie an Montenegro.

Zenica is an aa the place o oreegin o the Montenegrin Petrović dynasty that migratit in the 14t century tae Herzegovina an wad rule Montenegro for ower twa centuries.

Ottoman Rule[eedit | eedit soorce]

Durin the rule o the Ottoman Empire (1463–1878), chynges tae the main tred routes sidelined the toun in Bosnie affairs, except durin a brief period till 1557, when Zenica wis the residence o the Ottoman Qadi o Brod. Zenica became a sma toun wi several mosques: Sultan Ahmet's, Osman Chelebi's, Seymen an Jali mosques, a Madrassa (Islamic releegious schuil), foondit in 1737 an several lawer primary schuils, wi interestin Ottoman tombstanes, gardens, inns an several stoppin inns for caravans. In ane description frae the year 1697, Zenica is compared tae a delta o the Nile, whaur melons grow an whaur the entire landscape is vera pleasant. It is estimatit that Zenica haed 2,000 indwallers at that time; maistly Bosniaks, awtho Serbs an Croats are mentioned in documents at the end o the 18t century an, durin the 19t century, Jews are an aa mentioned.

The raids o Eugene o Savoy durin the Great Turkis War durin the 1680s are remembered as daurk times which left a lot destruction an caused an exodus o population, but bi 1697, Zenica haed stairtit tae stabilise an tae begin tae recover its influential poseetion.

Austro-Hungarian Rule[eedit | eedit soorce]

At the end o the 19t century, durin Austro-Hungarian occupation, thare wur investments in caipital projects that haed wider social an economic importance, an wur suin tae acome life an fate o Zenica. Those projects include a railwey frae Bosanski Brod tae Zenica biggit in 1879, a Coal Mine (1880), Paper Works (1885), Steel Factory (1892) an a Preeson (1886), aw o which impruivit baith the quality an quantity o ceety's development.

In the beginnin o the 20t century, thare wis an urban boom an the offeecial State Register for the year 1910 shows that in anerlie a few years the nummer o population haed increased tae 7,215 indwallers. An Orthodox Kirk wis biggit in 1882, twa Catholic Kirks in 1910, a Synagogue in 1903, several coachin inns, a hotel, a schuil, sewerage, paved roads an mair. The ceety chyngit markedly in character durin this period as micht be expectit durin sic a developmental boom.

Yugoslavie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Durin the Seicont Warld War, the local population (predominantly Muslim) signed the Resolution o the Muslims o Zenica in Mey 1942, an formed Muslim militias in the veelages o Šerići, Doglodima, Babino an ither places who jynt the Yugoslav Partisans. Zenica managed tae escape major physical damage or lairge-scale reprisals an human casualties.

Follaein the liberation o Zenica bi the Partisans in 1945, the toun began tae grow rapidly as the steel industry developed further. The toun spread tae encompass the umwhile veelages o Bilino Polje, Klopce an Radakovo, an new apairtment blocks wur biggit tae hoose the new miners an steelwirkers. In 1948 the population wis anerlie 12,000 fowk, but bi 1961 it haed grown tae ower 30,000. In 1981 the toun haed ower 63,000 fowk, an in the last census taken 1991 Zenica wis a ceety o some 96,027 fowk. Zenica haed seen a saxfold increase in its population ower 50 years.

The Bosnie War an Unthirldom[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1991, juist ane year afore the Bosnie War began, Zenica became the heidquarters o ane o the first private an independent radio stations in Eastren Europe, Radio CD-CEMP. In the Ware o 1993, Zoran Misetic, a jurnalist an the awner o Radio CD-CEMP, wis awardit wi the Belgian Awaird for Independent Journalism; the "Pen O Peace".

During the Bosnie War, the demographics o the ceety wur altered tae a certaint extent, whaurbi the ceety received a lairge nummer o ethnic Bosniaks frae ither pairts o Bosnie, while the Serb population left Zenica tae pairts o Serb-controlled Bosnie. The day, Zenica is tryin tae regain the economic influence it uised tae hae afore the war. Ane o the biggest steel mills in Sooth Central Europe haes been privatized an nou bears the name o the Mittal Steel Corp.

Demografics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Municipality Population[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ethnic Composition
Year Serb  % Bosniaks  % Croats  % Yugoslavs  % Ithers  % Tot
1961 20,369 24.15% 31,177 36.97% 20,509 24.32% 10,755 12.75% - -% 84,341
1971 21,875 19.45% 61,204 54.43% 24,658 21.93% 2,133 1.90% 2,577 2.29% 112,447
1981 21,204 15.97% 66,930 50.42% 23,595 17.78% 17,536 13.21% - -% 132,733
1991 22,592 15.52% 80,377 55.21% 22,651 15.56% 15,651 10.75% 4,306 2.96% 145,577

In 2005, population o Zenica municipality includit 85% Bosniaks, 8% Croats an 5% Serbs.

Toun Population[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ethnic Composition
Year Serb  % Bosniaks  % Croats  % Yugoslavs  % Ithers  % Tot
1961 10,525 32.41% 5,908 18.19% 9,393 28.92% 5,517 15.31% - -% 32,476
1971 12,779 24.93% 21,365 41.68% 13,250 25.85% 1,945 3.79% - -% 51,263
1981 12,728 20.02% 22,146 34.84% 11,716 18.43% 14,437 22.71% - -% 63,569
1991 18,488 19.21% 43,166 44.85% 15,917 16.54% 14,748 15.32% 3,919 4.07% 96,238

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Fortress O Vranduk

Zenica is situatit in the middle pairt o the River Bosna frae which the kintra takes its name, an staunds at 316 mietres (1,037 ft) abuin sea level. The soorce o the River Bosna is in Ilidža near Sarajevo an the confluence wi the River Sava is near Bosanski Šamac, which maks the river a naitural north-sooth axis. The Zenica valley itsel stretches frae Lasva canyon in the sooth tae Vranduk canyon tae the north.

Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Zenica is connectit wi Sarajevo (70 kilometres (40 mi) tae the sootheast), bi rail an road, baith o which run alang the valley o the river Bosna. The closest airport is Sarajevo Internaitional. The railwey line continues tae the sooth, eventually reachin the coast at Ploče in Croatie.

  • Surface: 500 square kilometres (190 sq mi)
  • Geographic latitude an langitude: 44°12' an 17°56'
  • Heicht abuin sea level: 316 metres (1,037 ft)
  • Cultivable soil: 64.14 square kilometres (24.76 sq mi) (12.69 %)
  • Forests: 37.84 square kilometres (14.61 sq mi) (60.90 %)
  • Pastures: 11.81 square kilometres (4.56 sq mi) (2.34 %)
  • Meadaes: 72.63 square kilometres (28.04 sq mi) (14.37 %)

Twin ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Offeecial results frae the beuk: Ethnic composition o Bosnie-Herzegovinae population, bi municipalities an settlements, 1991. census, Zavod za statistiku Bosne i Hercegovine - Bilten no.234, Sarajevo 1991.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Template:Zenica-Doboj Canton