Vanadzor

Frae Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Vanadzor
Offeecial seal o Vanadzor
Seal
Vanadzor is locatit in Armenie
Vanadzor
Vanadzor
Coordinates: 40°48′46″N 44°29′18″E / 40.81278°N 44.48833°E / 40.81278; 44.48833
Kintra  Armenie
Marz Lori
Govrenment
 • Mayor Samvel Darbinyan
Aurie
 • Total 25.1 km2 (9.7 sq mi)
Elevation 1,425 m (4,675 ft)
Population (2009 est.)
 • Tot 104,800
 • Density 4,175/km2 (10,810/sq mi)
Time zone GMT (UTC+4)
 • Simmer (DST) GMT (UTC)
Aurie code(s) 322
Wabsteid Vanadzor official website
Sources: Population[1]

Vanadzor (Armenie: Վանաձոր) is the third lairgest ceety in Armenie an the caipital o the Lori Province in the northren pairt o the kintra. It is locatit aroond 128 km north o the caipital Yerevan. As o the 2009 estimate, the ceety haed a population o 104,800, doun frae 148,876 reportit at the 1979 offeecial census. The ceety wis kent as Karakilisa (Gharakilisa) durin the Roushie Empire. Efter the faw o the Tsar, Vanadzor wis briefly kent as Martunakan. Efter the Sovietization o Armenie, the ceety wis renamed Kirovakan (Armenie: Կիրովական) in 1923, efter the Bolshevik leader Sergey Kirov. Wi the unthirldom o Armenie in 1991, Kirovakan wis renamit Vanadzor.

The ceety is in a picturesque settin, wi an attractive planned toun centre. Maistly crumblin Soviet-era chemical factories dominate hintle o the glen belaw the ceety.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Auld khachkars in Vanadzor

Hintle o the ceety's history is unkent. The human dounset in the region o present-day Vanadzor possibly dates back tae the Bronze Age, wi interestin tombs an mony ither remains foond in the nearbi hills o Tagavoranist an Mashtots.

The aurie o modren-day Vanadzor belangit tae the Tashir canton o Gugark; the thirteent province o the Kinrick o Armenie (Armenie Mayor), till the end o the Artaxiad Dynasty's rule ower Armenie in the 1st century AD. Later, the dounset wis ruled bi the ither Armenie dynasties o the Arsacids an the Bagratunis. Bi the end o the 10t century, the aurie became pairt o the Kinrick o Lori (Kinrick o Tashir-Dzoraget) till the beginnin o the 12t century. Wi the invasion o the Seljuk Turks, the region became unner the rule o the Great Seljuk Empire. The toun wis cried "Karakilisa" bi the Seljuks possibly as early as the 13t century, frae the black-staned Armenie kirk o the Holy Mither o God, on the nearbi hill.

In 1801, it became pairt o the Roushie Empire alang wi the Georgie state, a fact that made the ceety ane o the strategically important pynts for the Roushie defensive forces on the mairch wi Persie. In 1826, Karakilisa wis totally destroyed bi Hasan Khan durin the Rousho-Persie war. In 1849, it became pairt o the Yerevan Govrenorate athin the Roushie Empire. The ceety enjoyed considerable uplift throu the openin o the railwey tae Tbilisi in 1899. The vicinity o the ceety wis the steid o the Battle o Karakilisa when in Mey 1918, General Tovmas Nazarbekian's ootnumbered truips, led bi Garegin Nzhdeh successfully defendit it frae the invadin Turkis Airmy, pushin them back juist a few days efter the crucial battle o Sardarapat, sicweys allouin the Democratic Republic o Armenie tae come intae existence.[2] On the north side o the Spitak-Vanadzor heich-gate, aboot 2 km wast o the ceety, thare is a little shrine in the ruins o a kirk, steid o a planned monument tae that battle.

View frae Vanadzor

Accordin tae Khachatur Abovian, the population o Karakilisa wis no mair nor 600 dwallers in the 1820s, mainly migrants frae Yerevan. Efter becomin pairt o Yerevan Govrenorate, the toun wis flooded wi mony hunders o Armenie faimilies, migratit frae Kars, Ardahan an Wastren Armenie ceeties o Karin an Daroynk (Doğubeyazıt).

The first ceety development plan o Vanadzor initiatit bi airchitects Karo Halabyan, Mikayel Mazmanyan an Gevork Kochar, wis adoptit in 1929-1930. Unner the new plan, the toun wis enlairgit towards the eastren an wastren pairts. In 1939, the new re-biggin plan creatit bi airchitects N. Zargaryan an A. Minasyan haes remodeled the ceety creatin an industrial destrict an a simmer-resort aurie. The Vanadzor ceety centre wis redevelopit durin the 1950s. The central toun square wis opened surroondit wi govrenment an admeenistrative biggins.

Vanadzor, lik Gyumri an Spitak (25 km wast), suffered a considerable amoont o damage frae the 1988 Spitak yirdquauk when 564 residents dee'd in the ceety. Unlik the twa ither ceeties, the majority o biggins in Vanadzor wur unscathit frae the yirdquauk.

Geografie an climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Pambak river an Vanadzor

Vanadzor, the caipital o Lori Province, is locatit 128 km north o Yerevan an 64 km east o Gyumri.

At a hicht o 1425 meters abuin sea level, Vanadzor is locatit in the glen o Pambak river, on the pynt whare the rivers o Tantsut an Vanadzor jyne the Pambak river. The ceety, is surroondit wi the ower 2500-meters heich muntains o Bazum an Pambak. The soothren an eastren regions are densely forestit while tae the north an wast are anerlie covered wi bushes an plants.

The climate o Vanadzor is characterisit wi ceul simmers an relatively mild winters. The average temperatur in winter is -4.2 C, while in simmer it reaches up tae 20 C. Vanadzor's climate is classifee'd as humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfb). The amoont o precipitation is aroond 650 millimetres (26 in).

Climate data for Vanadzor
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average heich °C (°F) 1.5
(34.7)
2.8
(37)
7.0
(44.6)
13.5
(56.3)
18.4
(65.1)
21.0
(69.8)
23.3
(73.9)
23.8
(74.8)
20.5
(68.9)
16.5
(61.7)
9.4
(48.9)
4.3
(39.7)
13.5
(56.28)
Average law °C (°F) −18.0
(−0.4)
−17.0
(1.4)
−13.0
(8.6)
−5.0
(23)
0.0
(32)
4.0
(39.2)
7.0
(44.6)
7.0
(44.6)
2.0
(35.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
−10.0
(14)
−16.0
(3.2)
−5.2
(22.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 18
(0.71)
25
(0.98)
36
(1.42)
63
(2.48)
96
(3.78)
95
(3.74)
58
(2.28)
43
(1.69)
32
(1.26)
47
(1.85)
33
(1.3)
19
(0.75)
565
(22.24)
Average precipitation days 7 9 11 13 19 17 12 9 10 10 8 7 132
Soorce: World Meteorological Organisation (UN)[3]

Industrie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Chemical industry in Vanadzor

The industrial boomin o Vanadzor stairtit bi the end o the 1940s. The ceety is dominatit bi lairge chemical plants includin: "Prometey-Khimprom", "Vanadzor Chemical Plant", "Vanadzor Khimprom" an "Vanadzor Chemical Fiber Plant". Anither huge enterprise is the "Vanadzor Thermal Pouer Plant o 1961.

The chemical industries hae deep ruits in the history o Vanadzor. The first chemical plant wis foondit in 1929 an stairtit tae introduce. its products in 1932.

In 1996, a new plant wis opened for the production o gemstane cuttin machines an tuils.

In 1999, Roushie chemical giants stairtit tae enter the Armenie chemical industrial mercat through lairge investments in the existin plants o Vanadzor. Efter 2001, the chemical plant an the thermal pouer plant o the ceety regained their heichest capacities o production efter a decade o interruption caused bi the economical crisis in Armenie in the 1990s.

Many other industrial firms in Vanadzor produce several types of building materials (tufa, basalt, clay, etc.)

Tourism an attractions[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Rouhshie Orthodox kirk o the Nativity o Virgin Mary

Vanadzor is a toun-resort due tae its mild climate, clean air and mineral springs. Mony modren hotels are built in the ceety an the nearbi kintraside. The ceety is connectit wi ither major ceeties o Armenie wi a railwey an a motorwa.

Steids o interests[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • "Mashtots hill" airchaeological steid: hame tae mony remains frae the 4t millennium BC.
  • The auld kirk o the Holy Mither o God: kent as the Black Kirk or Karakilisa an aw, rebuilt in the 1831.
  • The Nativity o Virgin Mary Roushie Orthodox kirk: biggit in 1895.
  • Lori-Pambak airchaeological museum.
  • House-muesum o Stepan Zoryan.
  • Vanadzor Airt Gallery, opened in 1974.
  • Vanadzor Botanical Garden.
  • Vanadzor Central pairk.
  • Sayat Nova pairk.
  • Vanadzor sanatorium.

Population[eedit | eedit soorce]

Demografics[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Prelacy o the Diocese o Gougark

The population o Vanadzor haes grown gradually syne 1849, efter becomin pairt o the Yerevan Govrenorate.

The majority o the ceety's population are ethnic Armenies wi minor Roushie, Ukrainian an Greek commonties.

Here is a population chairt o Vanadzor ceety throughoot the history:[4]

Year Population
1831
494
1873
2,017
1897
3,917
1926
8,640
1839
17,607
1959
49,423
1979
148,876
2001
107,394
2009
104,800

Education an Releegion[eedit | eedit soorce]

Saint Gregory o Narek Cathedral

Vanadzor is hame tae mony educational institutions servin the population o the ceety an the residents o Lori an Tavush provinces. The ceety haes twa major educational centres: the Vanadzor State Pedagogical Institute namit efter Hovhannes Tumanyan an Mkhitar Gosh Armenie-Roushie Internaitional University. Branches o Yerevan State University are operatin in the ceety. As o 2009, 6 technical intermediate colleges, 30 public eddication schuils an 20 nurseries are operatin in the ceety.

Bein ane o the prominent cultural centres o Armenie, the ceety haes a municipal airt gallery, a dramatic theatre namit efter Hovhannes Abelyan, a puppet theatre an mony ither cultural institutions.

The majority o the population belangs tae the Armenie Apostolic Kirk. Vanadzor is the seat o the Diocese o Gougark o the Armenie Apostolic Kirk, servin the population o Lori an Tavush provinces.

The kirk o the Holy Mither o God o 1831, kent as Karakilisa (meanin the Black kirk) an aw, is ane o the auldest preservit kirks o the ceety. It wis renovatit in 1999.[5]

The ceety's sma Roushie Orthodox commonty is servit bi the kirk o the Nativity o Virgin Mary, biggit in 1895).[6]

The Surb Sargis kirk o Vanadzor wis biggit in 2000, near the prelacy biggin.

The grundbreakin service for the new cathedral o the diocese o Gugark teuk place in Mey 2002. Later in 2003, His Holiness Karekin II; the Supreme Patriairch an Catholicos o Aw Armenies, conductit the blessin service for the foondation o the cathedral. The construction o the cathedral wis completit in 2005 an namit efter Saunt Gregory o Narek, tae commemorate the 1000t anniversary o his Beuk o Lamentations.

In 2006, the sma chapel o the Holy Childer wis opened in the Tsitsernak childer's camp o Vanadzor.

Sport[eedit | eedit soorce]

The maist popular sport in the ceety is association fitbaa. FC Lori Vanadzor foondit in 1936 is ane o the auldest fitbaa clubs in Armenie. The team haed representit the ceety in the domestic competitions frae 1991 till 2006, when it wis dissolvit due tae lack o financial resoorces.

The lairgest sport venue o the ceety is the Lori Stadium wi a capacity o 5,000 seats, maistly bein uised for fitbaa matches. A renovation plan wis scheduled in order tae redevelop the stadium tae meet the requirements o the UEFA.[7]

Ither favourite types o sports for the ceetizens o Vanadzor include: handbaw, futsal, volleybaw, etc.

Vanadzor haes special sport schuils for soummin, athletics, wichtliftin, chess, gymnastics, table tennis an badminton.

Sister an pairtner ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gallery[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]