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Gyumri frae Vardanants Square
Gyumri frae Vardanants Square
Official seal of Gyumri Գյումրի
Gyumri Գյումրի is located in Armenie
Gyumri Գյումրի
Location o Gyumri in Armenie
Coordinates: 40°47′22″N 43°50′51″E / 40.78944°N 43.84750°E / 40.78944; 43.84750Coordinates: 40°47′22″N 43°50′51″E / 40.78944°N 43.84750°E / 40.78944; 43.84750
Established401 BC
 • Ceety45 km2 (17 sq mi)
1509.3696 m (4,952.0000 ft)
 • Density3253/km2 (8,430/sq mi)
 • Metro
Time zoneUTC+4 (GMT)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+5 (GMT)
Sources: Population [1]

Gyumri (Armenie: Գյումրի, "Gyoumri") is the caipital an lairgest ceety o the Shirak Province in northwast Armenie. It is locatit aboot 120 km frae the caipital Yerevan,[2] an, wi a population o 112,100 (estimatit, 2021),[3] is the seicont-lairgest ceety in Armenie.[4]

The name o the ceety haes been chynged mony times in history. It wis first kent as Kumayri or Gyumri, then Alexandropol (an aa, Alexandrapol, Alexandropol’, Aleksandropol’, Alek’pol, Alek’sandrobol, an Alek’sandrapol, 1840–1924), then Leninakan (Armenie: Լենինական , 1924–1990), then again as Gyumri.

The ceety is situatit on a 126 km distance north tae Yerevan in the central pairt o the Shirak Hieland, at an approximate heicht o 1550 meters abuin sea level. The Akhurian River passes throu the wastren suburbs o Gyumri. Gyumri's climate is characterised wi vera severe an cauld winters, whaur the minimum temperature coud faw doun tae −41 °C (−42 °F). On the ither haund, simmers in Gyumri are relatively het wi temperatures coud reach up tae 36 °C (97 °F). The annual precipitation maks up tae 500 millimetres (20 in) in average.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Auld Alexandrapol wi the Surb Amenaperkich (The Holy Saviour) Kirk

Gyumri is ane o the auldest localities in Armenie. The region o Gyumri is mentioned in different Urartian inscriptions syne 8t century BC.[5] The first dounset at the location occupied bi the day's ceety o Gyumri is believed tae hae been foondit some time in the 5t century BC, aiblins ca. 401 BC, bi Greek colonists.[1] An alternative theory suggests that the ceety wis foondit bi Cimmerians, based on the fact that Cimmerians conquered the region in 720 BC an that the oreeginal name o the ceety wis Kumayri.[2] Historians believe that Xenophon passed throu Gyumri durin his return tae the Black Sea, immortalized in his Anabasis.[6]

Durin the Middle Ages Gyumri wis kent as a great dounset,[5] an the centre o Armenian rebellion against the Islamic regime (733-755)

Gyumri continued tae develop in the 19t century, whan, alang wi its surroondins, it became pairt o Roushie efter the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813). Gyumri came unner Roushie control in 1804 aroond 25 years earlier than the rest o Eastren Armenie. Durin this period it wis ane o the best-kent ceeties o the Trans-Caucasus region. In 1829, in the aftermath o the Russo-Turkish War thare wis a big increase in population as aboot 3000 families who haed migratit frae territories athin the Ottoman Empire, in parteecular frae the touns o Kars, Erzurum, an Doğubeyazıt, settled in an aroond Gyumri. The Roushie poet Alexander Pushkin visitit Gyumri during his journey tae Erzurum in 1829.

In 1837 Roushie Czar Nicholas I arrived in Gyumri an renamed the toun Alexandropol. The name wis chosen in honour o Czar Nicholas I's wife, Princess Charlotte o Proushya, who haed chynged her name tae Alexandra Fyodorovna efter convertin tae Orthodox Christianity.

A major Roushie fortress wis biggit on the site in 1837. In the 1840s, Alexandrapol (a toun syne 1840) wis quickly growin. It wis an important ootpost for the Imperial Roushie military in the Transcaucasus, whaur thair military barracks wur established (Poligons, Severski, Kazachi Post).

20t century an ayont[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ottoman forces captured Gyumri on 11 Mey 1918 during the Caucasus Campaign in Warld War I but athdrew frae it on 24 December, 1918 efter bein required tae unner the Armistice o Mudros. Durin the Turkis-Armenie War, Turkey attacked Gyumri an occupied the ceety on 7 November 1920, efter winnin the Battle o Alexandropol. Efter the battle, the Turkis forces wur heidquartered in Gyumri. Frae this ceety the Turks presentit the Armenian republic wi an ultimatum that Armenie wis forced tae accept—itherwise Turkey wad hae invadit Yerevan, Armenie's caipital, frae thair heidquarters in Gyumri. Armenie wis forced tae sign the Treaty o Alexandropol tae stap the Turkish advance towards Yerevan, the caipital o the Democratic Republic o Armenie, sicweys endin the Turkis-Armenie War. Turkis forces athdrew frae Alexandropol efterwards.[7]

In 1924 the name wis chynged tae Leninakan efter the deceased Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin. Leninakan wis a major industrial centre for the Armenie Soviet Socialist Republic an its seicont lairgest ceety, efter Yerevan, the caipital. The ceety suffered major damage durin the 1988 Spitak yirdquauk, which devastatit lairge pairts o the kintra.

The current name o the ceety wis decidit in 1990, at the time o the breakup o the Soviet Union. The Roushie 102nt Militar Base is locatit in the ceety. The day, Gyumri is Armenie's seicont lairgest ceety.

Sport[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gyumri haes a major contreibution in the sports life o Armenie. Mony olympic an warld champion wrestlers, weightlifters an boxers are frae Gyumri. The ceety is notable for its warldwide champions in individual types o sports, sic as Robert Emmiyan in lang jump, Yurik Vardanian in weightliftin an Ara Abrahamian in Greco-Roman wrestlin. The ceety is hame tae the Armenian fitbaa team FC Shirak. Thay play thair hame gemmes at Gyumri City Stadium, biggit in 1924. Ither teams frae Gyumri are Aragats an Kumairi. The aw-time leadin scorer for the Armenie naitional fitbaa team Artur Petrosyan is frae Gyumri. Lots o special sport schuils are servin the young generation o Gyumri sic as the School o Gymnastics, the School o Athletics (named efter Robert Emmiyan), the School o fitbaa (named efter Levon Ishtoyan) an ither special schuils o boxin, weightliftin, wrestlin, martial airts an chess.

Twin ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Demografics[eedit | eedit soorce]

The population o Gyumri haes gradually grown syne 1840 efter gainin the status o toun. The huge decline o the population wis due tae the disastrous yirdquauk o 1988. The residents here hae a distinct leuk an style, an a bundless pride in thair ceety. Thair awn dialect is vera close tae Wastren Armenie.

Population chairt o Gyumri throughoot the history:

Year Population
1829 ~600
1830 4,000
1850 15,000
1873 20,000
1897 30,600
1914 51,300
1923 58,600
1939 67,700
1959 108,400
1970 164,966
1984 222,000
1989 122,587
2001 150,917
2010 146,100

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Armstats:Population
  2. https://en.armradio.am/2021/08/10/large-scale-construction-activities-under-way-at-gyumris-shirak-airport/
  3. http://www.citypopulation.de/en/armenia/admin/shirak/086__gyumri/
  4. https://mirrorspectator.com/2023/05/27/gyumri-dry-port-planned/
  5. a b (in Roushie) Leninakan in Great Soviet Encyclopedia [deid airtin]
  6. "|| GyumriTown.com | The #1 Internet Site for Gyumri Armenia |||". Archived frae the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 2 Mairch 2011.
  7. Hovannisian. Armenia on the Road to Independence, p. 198.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]