Santa Cruz Depairtment (Bolivie)

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Santa Cruz Depairtment

Departamento Autónomo de Santa Cruz
Banner o Santa Cruz Depairtment
Coat of airms o Santa Cruz Depairtment
Coat airms
Siempre libres cruceños seamos
Anthem: Bajo el cielo más puro de América
Location within Bolivia
Location within Bolivia
Kintra Bolivie
CaipitalSanta Cruz de la Sierra
Established as department bi law23 Julie 1826
 • GovrenorRuben Costas(VERDES)
 • SenatorsOscar Ortiz(PODEMOS)
Jorge Agulera(PODEMOS)
Guido Guardia(MAS)
 • Deputies25 out of 130
 • Total370621 km2 (143,098 sq mi)
Area rank1st in Bolivie
 33.74% o Bolivie
 • Total3,412,921
 • Density9.2/km2 (24/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC-4 (BOT)
Area code(s)+(591) 3
Offeecial leidSpaingie, Guaraní
ISO 3166-2BO-S
Aerial photo o forest, Santa Cruz Depairtment, 2009.

Santa Cruz, wi an aurie o 370,621 km², is the lairgest o the nine constituent depairtments o Bolivie. In the 2001 census, it reportit a population o 2,029,471. The Caipital is the ceety o Santa Cruz de la Sierra. The state is ane o the walthiest states in Bolivie wi huge reserves o natural gas. Heichlichtin the cultural, economic, an poleetical divides atween the fowk o the heichlands (occident) an lawlands (orient) o Bolivie, the efforts bi the Bolivie preses Evo Morales tae introduce land reforms an redistribute the natural gas revenues wi the poorer indigenous fowk in wastren Bolivie, haes spurred on diveesions athin the kintra an caws for an action for greater regional/depairtmental autonomy.[1]

Government an admeenistration[eedit | eedit soorce]

According to current Constitution, the heichest authority in the depairtment lees wi the governor. The umwhile figur o prefect wis appointit bi the Preses o the Republic till 2005, when the prefect for the first time wis electit bi popular vote tae serve for a five-year term. In 2010 the first govrenor wis electit accordin tae the implementation o autonomy efter a struggle for amaist a decade bi the fowk o Santa Cruz.

Santa Cruz haes a Departmental Assembly (Asamblea Departamental) an aw, which derives but differs frae the previous Depairtmental Cooncil (Consejo Departamental). It is a state legislatur wi limitit legislation pouers, being able tae mak laws in certain subjects in exclusivity an in some others in concurrence wi the state legislative branch.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

The department covers a vast expanse o territory in eastren Bolivie, hintle o it rainforests, extendin frae the Andes tae the border wi Brazil. The depairtment's economy depends lairgely on agricultur, wi succar, cotton, soybeans an rice being grown. The amoont o land cultivatit bi modren fermin techniques is increasin rapidly in the Santa Cruz aurie, whaur weather allous for twa crops a year.

In recent years, the discovery o natural gas in the department haes led tae plans for the development o a regional natural gas industry that is likely tae boost the local economy. Bolivie’s energy meenister said twa proposed liquefeed petroleum gas plants mey allou the kintra tae boost supplies tae Brazil an Argentinae bi 2010, easin a shortage o the fuel efter a lack o investment reducit ootput. The processin plants wad be built in Santa Cruz an each wad produce aboot 200 tons o liquefeed petroleum gas a day. The plants wad help turn a deficit o gas intae a “surplus”.

The depairtment hosts El Mutún an aw, the warld's seicont lairgest iron ore reserve (efter Carajás in Brazil) an lairgest magnesium deposits are locatit thare an aw. Locatit in the Germán Busch Province in the Santa Cruz Depairtment o Bolivie, near Puerto Suárez, El Mutún extends athort the border intae Brazil, where it is cried the Serrania de Jacadigo. Kent as the "Serrania Mutún" an aw, it haes an aurie o aboot 75 square kilometers. Its estimatit reserves are aboot 40.205 billion tons o iron ore o 50% iron, mainly in hematite an magnetite form, an in lesser quantities in siderite an manganese minerals. This can be compared wi an estimate o the total warld reserves o iron ore: 800 billion tons o crude ore containin mair nor 230 billion tons o iron.

In Julie 2004, the fowk votit in a naition-wide referendum tae allou for regulatit exportation o the gas.[2]

Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Santa Cruz Depairtment is the lairgest o the Bolivie depairtments an covers a wide an diverse aurie. In the wast lees a series o temperate Sub-Andean ranges an valleys while tae the north an sooth lees twa different lawlands areas; the Beni an Chaco lawlands respectively. Tae the northeast lies the flat Llanos Chiquitanos auries an ayont these the Serranías Chiquitanas ranges. In the far east the depairtments hae sma pairts o the huge Pantanal wetland.

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

The first settlers o Santa Cruz wur mainly Spaniards that accompaniet Ñuflo de Chávez, as well as Guarani natives frae Paraguay, an some Flemings, Portuguese, Germans an Italians wirkin for the Spainyie croun.[3] Amang the first settlers there wur Sephardic Jews[4] recently convertit tae Christianity who wur persecutit in bi the inquiseetion in Spain. an aw Santa Cruz haes a multicultural population: 40% is mestizo wi baith Native an European ascendants, 50% is White o European descent an 10% Natives.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

At 416 meters abuin sea level, it is wairm an tropical maist o the year. Winters are short an last anerlie 2–3 month but can get vera cauld vera suddenly. "Surazos" (sootherly winds that blow in from Argentina) can drop the temperatur bi as much as 30 degrees owernicht. This extreme cauld lasts anerlie a few days at a time an the bonnie, sub-tropical Santa Cruz is pleasant throughoot maist o the year. Here the climate varies bi geographical zone: temperate tae cauld in the wastren sierras an wairm tae hot an humid as ane descends intae the extensive plains.

Provinces[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Depairtment o Santa Cruz is dividit intae 15 provinces.

Province Caipital Aurie (km²) Population (2005)
Andrés Ibáñez Santa Cruz de la Sierra   4,821 1,549,849
Ignacio Warnes Warnes 1,216 62,417
José Miguel de Velasco San Ignacio 65,425 64,517
Ichilo Buena Vista 14,232 82,952
Chiquitos San José 31,429 70,319
Sara Portachuelo 6,886 42,157
Cordillera Lagunillas 86,245 108,843
Vallegrande Vallegrande 6,414 27,691
Florida Samaipata 4,132 29,850
Obispo Santiesteban Montero 3,673 166,267
Ñuflo de Chávez Concepción 54,150 116,101
Ángel Sandoval San Matías 37,442 14,362
Manuel Maria Caballero Comarapa 2,310 22,142
Germán Busch Puerto Suárez 24,903 37,637
Guarayos Ascensión 20,293 38,498

Caw for autonomy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Eastren provinces in Bolivie includin the Santa Cruz haes majority o the natural gas reserves. Bolivian preses Evo Morales is plannin tae introduce legislation tae tackle the poverty in the kintra bi redistrubutin the walth o the naition.[5]

In May 2008, the govrenment o Santa Cruz began conductin a referendum for autonomy frae the naitional govrenment ower, amang ither things, strains atween the local govrenment an Preses Evo Morales. Morales's attempts tae chynge the constitution hae been fiercely opposed bi opposition govrenors who run five o Bolivie's nine regions. Feenal results frae the referendum showed that 85.6% o pairticipatin voters supportit autonomy.

Leids[eedit | eedit soorce]

The leids spoken in the department are mainly Spaingie an Quechua due tae the migratin waves frae the wast side o the kintra. The follaein table shows the number o those belangin tae the recognizit group o speakers.[6]

Altar in the church of San Rafael de Velasco, Santa Cruz.
Leid Depairtment Bolivie
Quechua 256,480 2,281,198
Aymara 52,698 1,525,321
Guaraní 45,574 62,575
Anither native 19,167 49,432
Spaingie 1,846,263 6,821,626
Foreign 100,345 250,754
Anerlie native 40,796 960,491
Native an Spaingie 315,064 2,739,407
Spaingie an foreign 1,559,541 4,115,751

Places o interest[eedit | eedit soorce]

Cataratas Arcoiris Bolivia, Noel Kempff Mercado National Park

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Anti-Morales protests hit Bolivia
  2. Gas Referendum
  3. Al Margen de mis Lecturas, by Marcelo Terceros Banzer. Published September 1998
  4. History of the Jewish People, written by Eli Birnbaum.
  5. Morales offers dialogue to rivals
  6. Archived 2009-02-18 at the Wayback Machine (Spanish)

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]