Chuquisaca Depairtment

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Depairtment o Chuquisaca
Laguna de Culpina
Laguna de Culpina
Banner o Depairtment o Chuquisaca
Location athin Bolivie
Location athin Bolivie
Kintra Bolivie
 • GovrenorEsteban Urquizu Cuéllar
 • Total51524 km2 (19,894 sq mi)
 • Total572,165
Time zoneUTC-4 (BOT)
HDI (2004)-
ISO 3166-2BO-H

Chuquisaca is a depairtment o Bolivie locatit in the centre sooth. It borders on the depairtments o Cochabamba, Tarija, Potosí, an Santa Cruz. The depairtmental caipital is Sucre, which is the constitutional caipital o Bolivie an aw.

Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]

The depairtment is traversed bi the main cordillera o the Andes muntain range an lesser cordilleras. Pairts o it lie athin the basin o the Amazon River, an ither pairts athin the basin o the Río de La Plata. The surface aurie o the depairtment is 51,524 square kilometers[1]. The topography o central Chuquisaca consists o a series o ridges risin up tae 1500 m that run north an sooth wi flat valleys atween the ridges. Tae the east o thir ridges abruptly rise the Andes Muntains tae 3000 m formin a prepuna landmass that is cut intae bi lairge river glens that drain intae the Amazon or Rio de la Plata river basins. Tae the wast o the central ridges lees a stretch o territory containin law altitude flat Chaco topography[2]. 90% o the land in the depairtment o Chuquisaca haes inclination o 70% or mair[3].

Ecological an Vegetation Zones[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ecological an vegetation zones in the depairtment o Chuquisaca vary widely accordin tae a diversity o abiotic factors includin soil formation an texturs, rainfaw patterns, an mineral an salinity content o watter. Altitude plays an important role in the dispersion o vegetation species an wider ecoseestems as thay respond tae microclimates. As the Andes Muntains became upliftit, plants adaptit tae dryer an heicher microclimates resultin in a heich level o speciation especially in the dry forest river glens o the Bolivie-Tucuman formation[4]. Caulder an dryer air frae mair austral pairts o Sooth Americae hae resultit in migration o plant commonties wi a floristic connection tae those in Argentinae, Paraguay an Soothren Brazil as opposed tae mair tropical plant commonties that result frae wairm an moist northren climates[4]. Navarro an Ferreira hae developit a database o plant species in Bolivie[5] an identifeed 39 separate vegetation zones in Bolivie athin twal general pheesiographic-biogeographical units o which fower faw in the boondaries o Chuquisaca Depairtment includin: Cordillera Oriental Central y Meridional, Prepuna or Heich Interandean Howie, Bolivie-Tucuman Formation, an Chaco. Uisin Navarro an Ferreira’s categories an descriptions based on vegetation zones, the geographical an ecological characteristics o the Chuquisaca Depairtment can be describit as follaes.

Cordillera Oriental Central y Meridional: Frae an altitude o 3200m in Chuquisaca tae nearly 6000 meters in Potosi, this zone is characterizit bi the puna, altoandean, an subnival an nival ecological zones wi a pluviestacional subhumit bioclimate[5].

Prepuna or Heich Interandean Valleys: Frae 2300m tae 3200m, this zone is characterizit bi a mesotropical dry xeric bioclimatic zone. Seasonally torrential watters an salinity levels affect regional vegetation patterns in this zone[5].

Bolivie-Tucuman Formation: Wi a wide altitude range atween 600m tae 3900m this zone contains pluviestacional subhumid an locally humid bioclimatic zones. The heich altitude Rio Grande an Pilcomayo river glens transect this unit an are characterizit bi dry xeric vegetation zones wi endemic an variet speciation especially in the Rio Grande river glen an vegetation influence frae the Chaco in the Pilcomayo river glen[4][5]. Wet forest ecoseestems lik those foond in mair northren Yungas glens are foond on heich ridges whaur clouds form[2].

Xeric River Valley near Presto, Bolivie

Chaco: frae 400–900 m this unit is characterizit bi a xeric bioclimate. Sandy soils in this unit wur formit frae alluvial processes frae the Parapeti an Grande rivers. Soil drainage affects vegetation dispersion athin this unit[5].

Human Ecological Impacts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wi a human population o 631,000 fowk[6] humans are a pairt o the ecology o Chuquisaca. The grazin o cattle an introduction o invasive feral citrus trees haes affectit the native plant populations in the depairtment[2]. Native forests an ecoseestems hae contractit as land haes been convertit tae pastur an erosion is widespread as a result o human agricultural activities on steep slopes[7].[8]

Govrenment[eedit | eedit soorce]

The chief executive office o Bolivie depairtments (syne Mey 2010) is the govrenor; till then, the office wis cried the prefect, an till 2006 the prefect wis appointit bi the Preses o Bolivie. The current govrenor, Esteban Urquizu Cuéllar o the Muivement for Socialism – Poleetical Instrument for the Sovereignty o the Fowks wis electit on 4 Aprile 2010.

Date Began Date Endit Prefect/Govrenor Pairty Notes
23 Jan 2006 30 Aug 2007 David Sánchez Heredia MAS-IPSP First electit prefect. Electit in Bolivie general election, December 2005; Resigns temporarily amid ceety-kintraside tensions.[9]
30 Aug 2007 20 Sep 2007 Adrián Valeriano (actin) MAS-IPSP
20 Sep 2007 18 Dec 2007 David Sanchez Heredia MAS-IPSP Fled the depairtment (24 Nov), an later the kintra (4 Dec), follaein the daiths o three civic muivement protesters durin a disputit session o the Bolivie Constituent Assembly. Resigns in exile.[9]
18 Dec 2007 11 Jul 2008 Ariel Iriarte (actin) MAS-IPSP
11 Jul 2008 30 Mey 2010 Sabina Cuéllar Leaños ACI Electit in special election on 29 Juin; feenal prefect
30 Mey 2010 Esteban Urquizu Cuéllar MAS-IPSP Electit in regional election on 4 Aprile; first govrenor

Legislative Assembly[eedit | eedit soorce]

Unner the 2009 Constitution, each Bolivie depairtment haes an electit Depairtmental Legislative Assembly. The first elections wur held 4 Aprile 2010. The majority pairty in the twinty-ane member assembly is the Muivement towards Socialism (MAS-IPSP) wi 15 seats. Fower seats are held bi We Are Aw Chuquisaca. Twa seats wur selectit bi the Guaraní fowk throu usos y costumbres.

Provinces[eedit | eedit soorce]

The depairtment is dividit intae 10 provinces which are further subdividit intae municipalities an cantons.

Name Population Aurie km² Caipital
Oropeza 275.765 3.943 Sucre
Azurduy 27.973 4.185 Azurduy
Jaime Zudáñez 34.640 3.738 Presto
Tomina 38.359 3.947 Padilla
Hernando Siles 37.035 5.473 Monteagudo
Yamparáez 28.797 1.472 Tarabuco
Nor Cinti 71.084 7.983 Camargo
Sud Cinti 24.010 5.484 Villa Abecia
Belisario Boeto 12.237 2.000 Villa Serrano
Luis Calvo 22.275 13.299 Villa Vaca Guzmán (Muyupampa)

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The native indwallers wur the Charcas, who wur dispersed alang riverbanks an lawlands. Thair leaders, jampiris, sorcerers, an priests residit in the caipital, Choque-Chaca, which accordin tae 17t century chronicles haed a population o several thoosand.

The caipital ceety o Sucre[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sucre (elev. 2750 m) is cried the ceety o the fower names, each name correspondin tae a different period o its history. It wis foondit bi the Spaniard Pedro de Anzures in 1538. It thrivit due tae its regional proximity tae the famous siller mines o Potosi, an as Charcas servit as caipital o the Real Audiencia de Charcas, encompassin aw o current Bolivie's territory an mair. Revertin tae its native name o Chuquisaca, it wis the Upper Peru's chief admeenistrative centre an lairgest ceety. It wis thare that the first public caw for unthirldom frae Spain teuk place, on 25 Mey 1809, an whaur the Act o Unthirldom frae Spainyie rule wis signed on 6 August 1825. It wis immediately designatit the caipital o independent Bolivie, unner the auspices o Simon Bolivar an Antonio Jose de Sucre. Years later, the ceety o Chuquisaca wis renamit Sucre in honour o the Venezuelan hero o Sooth Americae's unthirldom, who haed servit as the first effective admeenistrator o the kintra (an seicont Preses).

When the centre o poleetical an economic pouer shiftit north, tae the tin-producin regions o Oruro an La Paz, Sucre's importance waned, leadin tae the displacement o the legislative an executive pouers tae La Paz. Housomeivver, in honour o Sucre's historical preponderance, the judicial branch (Supreme Court) continues tae operate thare, an the ceety's offeecial status as caipital o the kintra wis niver revokit.

Leids[eedit | eedit soorce]

The leids spaken in the depairtment are mainly Spaingie an Quechua. The follaein table shows the nummer o those belangin tae the recognizit group o speakers.[10]

Leid Depairtment Bolivie
Quechua 298,050 2,281,198
Aymara 4,308 1,525,321
Guaraní 8,330 62,575
Anither native 145 49,432
Spaingie 376,071 6,821,626
Foreign 8,840 250,754
Anerlie native 122,401 960,491
Native an Spaingie 185,598 2,739,407
Spaingie an foreign 190,599 4,115,751

Places o interest[eedit | eedit soorce]

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Atlas de Potencialidades Productivas del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia" (PDF). Atlas de Potencialidades Productivas del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 11 Mairch 2012. Retrieved 14 Juin 2011.
  2. a b c Schulenberg, T (1997). "A rapid assessment of the humid forests of South Central Chuquisaca, Bolivia". RAP Working Papers 8, Conservation International. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  3. "Atlas de Potencialidades Productivas del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia" (PDF). Atlas de Potencialidades Productivas del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 11 Mairch 2012. Retrieved 14 Juin 2011.
  4. a b c Lopez, R.P. (2003). "Phytogeographical relations of the Andean dry valleys of Bolivia". Journal of Biogeography. 1659-1668. 30.
  5. a b c d e Navarro, G (2004). "Zonas de vegetacion potencial de Bolivia: una base para el analisis de vacios de conservacion". Revista Boliviana de Ecologia y Conservacion Ambiental. 15. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  6. "Censo de Poblacion y Vivienda 2001". Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (INE). Archived frae the original on 22 Julie 2011. Retrieved 30 Juin 2012.
  7. "Atlas de Potencialidades Productivas del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia" (PDF). Atlas de Potencialidades Productivas del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 11 Mairch 2012. Retrieved 14 Juin 2011.
  8. Zak, M. (2004). "Do subtropical seasonal forests in the Gran Chaco, Argentina, have a future?". Biological Conservation. 589-598. 120. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  9. a b "Sánchez renuncia, se asila en Perú y Chuquisaca ya piensa en elección". Correo del Sur. 18 December 2007.
  10. Archived 2009-02-18 at the Wayback Machine (Spanish)

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

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