Guaraní leid

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Guaraní
Paraguayan Guarani
Avañe'ẽ
Pronunciation[ʔãʋ̃ãɲẽˈʔẽ]
Native taeArgentinae, Brazil,
Paraguay, Bolivie
EthnicityGuaraní fowk
Native speakers
(4.85 million citit 1995)
Guaraní alphabet (Laitin script)
Offeecial status
Offeecial leid in
 Paraguay
 Corrientes[1] (Argentinae)
 Bolivie
Leid codes
ISO 639-1gn
ISO 639-2grn
ISO 639-3gug

Guaraní is a Native American macroleid, spokken in Paraguay an pairts o Bolivie, Argentinae, an Brazil.

Varieties[eedit | eedit soorce]

The varieties that Ethnologue 16 assigns tae the macroleid is:

Thay skare some degree o mutual intelligibility an is close tae bein dialects; housomivver, Chiripá is reportit tae be intelligible whit wi bilingualism, na inherently. Also, there is a degree o intelligibility wi Kaiwá–Pai Tavytera, whilk isna includit in the macroleid bi Ethnologue. Ethnologue considers Tapieté tae be a separate leid, intermediate atween Eastern Bolivien an Paraguayan though no listed as pairt o the macroleid, an haes shifted frae the name Chiripá tae Avá, though the latter is ambiguous. Paraguayan Guaraní is bi far the maist important variety an is what is aften meant bi the term 'Guaraní'.

Distribution o Guaraní[eedit | eedit soorce]

Paraguay[eedit | eedit soorce]

Paraguayan Guaraní, is, anent Spaingie, ane o the offeecial leids o Paraguay. Paraguay's constitution is bilingual, an its state-producit textbooks is teepically hauf in Spaingie an hauf in Guaraní.

Paraguay is a diglossic kintra. The eddicatit, mair urban, an mair European-descended population tends tae speak a variety o Laitin American Spainyie wi short phrases o Guaraní thrown in, while the less educated rural population tends tae speak a Guaraní wi significant vocabulary-borraein frae Spainyie. This latter mix is kent as Jopará [ɟopaˈɾa].

Guaraní speakers wha isnae fluent in ony ither leid haes merkedly leemitit opportunities for eddication an employment. Thare is verra few Guaraní speakers ootwi Sooth Americae. The few that exist include emigrants, scholars, missionaries, an umwhile Peace Corps volunteers.

A Guaraní variety kent as Chiripá is forby spokken in Paraguay. It is closely sib wi Paraguayan Guaraní, a leid whilk speakers is increasingly switchin tae. There is 7,000 speakers o Chiripá in Paraguay.

Additionally, anither Guaraní variety kent as Mbyá is forby spokken in Paraguay bi 8,000 speakers. Lexically, it is 75% similar tae Paraguayan Guaraní.

Finally, in the Paraguayan Chaco Depairtment, there is 304 speakers o Eastren Bolivie/Wastren Argentine Guaraní , kent locally as Ñandeva. (Housomever, ootwi Paraguay, Ñandeva refers tae Chiripá.)

Argentinae[eedit | eedit soorce]

Paraguayan Guaraní is an offeecial leid in the province o Corrientes, alangside Spaingie.

A different Guaraní variety, Wastren Argentine Guaraní, is spokken faurer wast, bi aboot 15,000 speakers, maistly in Jujuy, but forby in Salta Province. It refers tae essentially the same Guaraní variety as Eastren Bolivien Guaraní.

Additionally, anither Guaraní variety kent as Mbyá is spokken in Argentinae bi 3,000 speakers.

Bolivie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Eastren Bolivie Guaraní an Westren Bolivie Guaraní are widely spoken in the sootheastren provinces o the kintra.

Eastren Bolivien Guaraní, forby kent as Chawuncu or Chiriguano, is spokken in bi 33,670 speakers (or 36,917) in the sooth-central Parapeti River area an in the ceety o Tarija. It refers tae essentially the same Guaraní variety as Wastren Argentine Guaraní.

In August 2009, Bolivie launched a Guarani-leid university at Kuruyuki in the southeastern province of Chuquisaca whilk beirs the name o indigenous hero Apiaguaiki Tumpa.

Brazil[eedit | eedit soorce]

Paraguayan Guaraní, thegither wi its Tupian sisters, the língua geral paulista (presently extinct) an the língua geral amazônica (whase modern descendant is Nheengatu), wis ance as prevalent in Brazil as it is in Paraguay. The leid began a lang period o decay in Brazil whan the Jesuits, wha haed dune muckle fur tae spreed an standardize it, wisexpelled frae the Portuguese Empire bi order o the Portuguese prime meenister Marquis o Pombal in 1759. Guaraní pits ower in scattert pockets atouer Brazil, ane o whilk can be foond in a landwart destrict athin the municipality o São Paulo. Olívio Jekupé, a residenter o Krukutu veelage, locatit in this aurie, haes published a beuk o fowk tales written in Guaraní an Portuguese. Acause o its proximity wi Paraguay, in Mato Grosso do Sul (Ponta Porã), the Guaraní leid is a seicont leid locally. In 2010, Guaraní gained the status o offeecial leid anent Portuguese in the municipality o Tacurú, Mato Grosso do Sul. In Brazil, Paraguayan Guaraní is generally referred tae as Guarani-Kaiowá.

The Guaraní variety kent as Chiripá is spokken in Brazil an aw bi 4,900 speakers. Chiripá is cried Nhandeva in Brazil. Its speakers is increasingly switchin tae Paraguayan Guaraní.

Additionally, Mbyá Guaraní is spaken in Brazil bi 16,050 speakers.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

http://www.unavenirpourlesguaranis.org Archived 2011-03-03 at the Wayback Machine - French website about the Guarani

  1. Ley Nº 5598 Poder Legislativo de Corrientes, 28 September 2004 (in Spaingie)