Guaraní leid

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Paraguayan Guarani
Native taeArgentinae, Brazil,
Paraguay, Bolivie
EthnicityGuaraní fowk
Native speakers
(4.85 million citit 1995)
Guaraní alphabet (Laitin script)
Offeecial status
Offeecial leid in
 Corrientes[1] (Argentinae)
Leid codes
ISO 639-1gn
ISO 639-2grn
ISO 639-3gug

Guaraní is a Native American macroleid, spoken in Paraguay an pairts o Bolivie, Argentinae, an Brazil.

Varieties[eedit | eedit soorce]

The varieties that Ethnologue 16 assigns tae the macroleid ar:

These share some degree o mutual intelligibility an ar close tae bein dialects; however, Chiripá is reportit tae be intelligible due tae bilingualism, na inherently. Also, there is a degree o intelligibility wi Kaiwá–Pai Tavytera, which is na includit in the macroleid bi Ethnologue. Ethnologue considers Tapieté tae be a separate leid, intermediate atween Eastern Bolivien an Paraguayan though na listed as part o the macroleid, an haes shifted frae the name Chiripá tae Avá, though the latter is ambiguous. Paraguayan Guaraní is bi far the maist important variety an is what is aften meant bi the term 'Guaraní'.

Distribution o Guaraní[eedit | eedit soorce]

Paraguay[eedit | eedit soorce]

Paraguayan Guaraní, is, alangside Spaingie, ane o the offeecial leids o Paraguay. Paraguay's constitution is bilingual, an its state-producit textbooks are teepically hauf in Spaingie an hauf in Guaraní.

Paraguay is a diglossic kintra. The eddicatit, mair urban, an mair European-descended population tends tae speak a variety o Laitin American Spainyie wi short phrases o Guaraní thrown in, while the less educated rural population tends tae speak a Guaraní wi significant vocabulary-borrowin frae Spainyie. This latter mix is kent as Jopará [ɟopaˈɾa].

Speakers o Guaraní who are nae fluent in ony ither leid hae markedly leemitit opportunities for eddication an employment. Thare are very few speakers o Guaraní ootside Sooth Americae. Those few that exist include emigrants, scholars, missionaries, an umwhile volunteers o the Peace Corps.

A variety o Guaraní kent as Chiripá is also spoken in Paraguay. It is closely relatit tae Paraguayan Guaraní, a leid which speakers ar increasingly switchin tae. There ar 7,000 speakers o Chiripá in Paraguay.

Additionally, anither variety of Guaraní kent as Mbyá is also spoken in Paraguay bi 8,000 speakers. Lexically, it is 75% similar tae Paraguayan Guaraní.

Finally, in the Paraguayan Chaco Depairtment, there are 304 speakers o Eastren Bolivie/Wastren Argentine Guaraní, kent locally as Ñandeva. (However, ootside Paraguay, Ñandeva refers tae Chiripá.)

Argentinae[eedit | eedit soorce]

Paraguayan Guaraní is an offeecial leid in the province o Corrientes, alangside Spaingie.

A different variety o Guarani, Wastren Argentine Guaraní, is spoken further wast, bi about 15,000 speakers, maistly in Jujuy, but also in Salta Province. It refers tae essentially the same variety o Guaraní as Eastren Bolivien Guaraní.

Additionally, anither variety o Guaraní kent as Mbyá is spoken in Argentinae bi 3,000 speakers.

Bolivie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Eastren Bolivie Guaraní an Westren Bolivie Guaraní are widely spoken in the sootheastren provinces o the kintra.

Eastren Bolivien Guaraní, also kent as Chawuncu or Chiriguano, is spoken in bi 33,670 speakers (or 36,917) in the sooth-central Parapeti River area an in the ceety o Tarija. It refers tae essentially the same variety o Guaraní as Wastren Argentine Guaraní.

In August 2009 Bolivie launched a Guarani-leid university at Kuruyuki in the southeastern province of Chuquisaca which will bear the name of indigenous hero Apiaguaiki Tumpa.

Brazil[eedit | eedit soorce]

Paraguayan Guaraní, thegither wi its Tupian sisters, the língua geral paulista (presently extinct) an the língua geral amazônica (whose modern descendant is Nheengatu), wis ance as prevalent in Brazil as it is in Paraguay. The leid began a lang period o decline in Brazil when the Jesuits, who haed done much tae spread an standardize it, wur expelled frae the Portuguese Empire bi order o the Portuguese prime meenister Marquis o Pombal in 1759. Guaraní survives in scattert pockets throughoot Brazil, ane o which can be foond in a landwart destrict athin the municipality o São Paulo. Olívio Jekupé, a resident o Krukutu veelage, locatit in this aurie, haes published a beuk o fowk tales written in Guaraní an Portuguese. Because o its proximity wi Paraguay, in Mato Grosso do Sul (Ponta Porã), the Guaraní leid is a seicont leid locally. In 2010, Guaraní gained the status o offeecial leid alangside Portuguese in the municipality o Tacurú, Mato Grosso do Sul. In Brazil, Paraguayan Guaraní is generally referred tae as Guarani-Kaiowá.

The variety o Guaraní kent as Chiripá is spoken in Brazil an aw bi 4,900 speakers. Chiripá is cried Nhandeva in Brazil. Its speakers are increasingly switchin tae Paraguayan Guaraní.

Additionally, Mbyá Guaraní is spaken in Brazil bi 16,050 speakers.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce] Archived 2011-03-03 at the Wayback Machine - French website about the Guarani

  1. Ley Nº 5598 Poder Legislativo de Corrientes, 28 September 2004 (in Spaingie)