Papaya

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Papaya
Carica papaya - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-029.jpg
Papaya tree an fruit, frae Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887)
Scienteefic clessification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Brassicales
Family: Caricaceae
Genus: Carica
Species: C. papaya
Binomial name
Carica papaya
L.
Papaya ootput in 2005, shawn as a percentage o the tap producer, Brazil (1.7 megatonnes)

The papaya /pəˈpə/ or /pəˈpɑːjə/ (frae Carib via Spanyie), papaw, or pawpaw is the fruit o the plant Carica papaya, the sole species in the genus Carica o the plant faimily Caricaceae. It is native tae the tropics o the Americaes, mibbe frae soothren Mexico an neibourin Central Americae.[1] It wis first cultivatit in Mexico several centuries afore the emergence o the Mesoamerican classical ceevilizations.

The papaya is a lairge, tree-like plant, wi a single stem grawin frae 5 tae 10 m (16 tae 33 ft) tall, wi spirally arranged leafs confined tae the tap o the trunk. The laicher trunk is conspicuously scarred whaur leafs an fruit wis borne. The leafs is lairge, 50–70 cm (20–28 in) in diameter, deeply palmately lobed, wi seiven lobes. Unuisually for sic lairge plants, the trees is dioecious. The tree is uisually unbranched, unless lopped. The flouers is seimilar in shape tae the flouers o the Plumeria, but is a fair feck smawer an wax-like. Thay appear on the axils o the leafs, maturin intae lairge fruit - 15–45 cm (5.9–17.7 in) lang an 10–30 cm (3.9–11.8 in) in diameter. The fruit is ripe whan it feels saft (sae saft as a ripe avocado or a bit safter) an its skin haes attained an amber tae orange hue.

Carica papaya wis the first transgenic fruit tree tae hae its genome deciphered.[2]

Common names[eedit | eedit soorce]

Carica papaya plants an their fruits is kent bi different names aroond the Inglish-speakin warld:

  • North Americae an Belize: papayas
  • Unitit Kinrick: The fruit is uisually cried papaya but is forby kent as papaw or pawpaw [3]
  • Africae: pawpaw or papaw [4][5]

Cultivation[eedit | eedit soorce]

A papaya seedling.

Originally frae soothren Mexico (particularly Chiapas an Veracruz), Central Americae, an northren Sooth Americae, the papaya is nou cultivatit in maist tropical kintras. In cultivation, it graws rapidly, fruitin athin three year. It is, housomever, heichly frost-sensitive, limitin its production tae tropical lands.

Pests an diseases[eedit | eedit soorce]

Papayas is susceptible tae the papaya ringspot virus (PRV), whilk causes prematur moltin an malformation o the leafs.[6] In the 1990s, the virus threatened tae wipe oot Hawaii's papaya industry completely.

The papaya is also susceptible tae the fruit flee, a smaa, wasp-like insect that lays its eggs in young fruit.

Cultivars[eedit | eedit soorce]

Yellae flesh papayas, wi decorative flouers
Papaya wi reid flesh

Twa kins o papayas are commonly grawn. Ane haes sweet, reid (or orangish) flesh, an the ither haes yellae flesh; in Australie, they are cried "reid papaya" an "yellae papaw", respectively.[7] Either kynd, picked green, is cried a "green papaya."

The lairge-fruitit, reid-fleshed 'Maradol', 'Sunrise', an 'Caribbean Reid' papayas aften sauld in US mercats are commonly grawn in Mexico an Belize.[8]

In 2011 Philippine researchers reportit thay bi intergeneric hybridisation atween carica papaya an Vasconcellea quercifolia thay haed developed conventionally bred, nongenetically engineered papaya that are provin resistant tae PRV.[9]

Genetically modified cultivars[eedit | eedit soorce]

In response tae the PRV ootbreak in Hawaii, genetically altered papaya wis generated an brocht tae mercat (includin 'SunUp' an 'Rainbow') that hae some papaya ringspot virus (PRV) DNA incorporatit intae the DNA o the plant is resistant tae PRVs.[6][10] This wis so successful that bi 2010, 80% o Hawaiian papaya plants wis genetically modified.[11][12]

Uises[eedit | eedit soorce]

Papayas can be uised as a fuid, a cuikin aid an in tradeetional medicine. The stem an bark mey be uised in rope production.

Meat tenderizin[eedit | eedit soorce]

Baith green papaya fruit an the tree's latex is rich in papain, a protease uised for tenderizin meat an ither proteins. Its ability tae break doun teuch meat fibers wis uised for thoosands o years bi indigenous Americans. It is nou includit as a component in powdered meat tenderizers.

Nutrients, phytochemicals an culinary practices[eedit | eedit soorce]

Papayas, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 179 kJ (43 kcal)
Carbohydrates 10.82 g
- Succars 7.82 g
- Dietary fiber 1.7 g
Fat 0.26 g
Protein 0.47 g
Vitamin A equiv. 47 μg (6%)
- beta-carotene 274 μg (3%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin 89 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.023 mg (2%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.027 mg (2%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.357 mg (2%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.191 mg (4%)
Vitamin B6 0.038 mg (3%)
Folate (vit. B9) 38 μg (10%)
Vitamin C 62 mg (75%)
Vitamin E 0.3 mg (2%)
Vitamin K 2.6 μg (2%)
Calcium 20 mg (2%)
Iron 0.25 mg (2%)
Magnesium 21 mg (6%)
Manganese 0.04 mg (2%)
Phosphorus 10 mg (1%)
Potassium 182 mg (4%)
Sodium 8 mg (1%)
Zinc 0.08 mg (1%)
Lycopene 1828 µg
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Papaya fruit is a soorce o nutrients like provitamin A carotenoids, vitamin C, folate an dietary fiber. Papaya skin, pulp an seeds contain a variety o phytochemicals, includin lycopene an polyphenols. In preliminary research, danielone, a phytoalexin foond in papaya fruit, shawed antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloesporioides, a pathogenic fungus o papaya.[13]

Ripe papaya fruits in tree

The ripe fruit o the papaya is usually eaten raw, withoot skin or seeds. The unripe green fruit can be eaten cuiked, uisually in curries, salads, an stews. Green papaya is uised in Sootheast Asie cuikin, baith raw an cuiked.[14] In Thai cuisine, papaya is uised tae mak Thai salads like som tam and Thai curries like kaeng som whan still no fou ripe. In Indonesian cuisine, the unripe green fruits an young leafs are boiled for uise as pairt o lalab salad, while the flouer buds is sautéed an stir-fried wi chillies an green tomataes as Minahasan papaya flouer vegetable dish. Papayas hae a relatively heich amoont o pectin, that can be uised tae mak jellies. The smell o ripe, fresh papaya flesh can strike some fowk as unpleasant.

The black seeds o the papaya are edible an hae a snell, spicy taste. Whiles, thay are groond an uised as a substitute for black pepper.

In some pairts o Asie, the young leafs o the papaya is steamed an etten like spinach.

In some pairts o the warld, papaya leafs are made intae tea as a treatment for malaria.[15] Antimalarial an antiplasmodial activity haes been notit in some preparations o the plant,[15] but the mechanism is nae unnerstood an no treatment method based on these results haes been scientifically proven.[15]

Yerbal medicine[eedit | eedit soorce]

Papaya is mercatit in tablet fairm tae remedy digestive problems.

Papain is also applied topically in kintras where it graws for the treatment o cuts, rashes, stings an burns. Papain ointment is commonly made frae fermented papaya flesh, an is applied as a gel-like paste. Harrison Ford wis treatit for a ruptured disc incurred durin filmin o Indiana Jones an the Temple o Doom bi papain injections.[16]

Allergies an side effects[eedit | eedit soorce]

Unripe green papayas

Papaya is frequently uised as a hair conditioner, but shoud be uised in smaa amoonts. Papaya releases a latex fluid whan nae quite ripe, that can cause irritation an provoke allergic reaction in some fowk.

The latex concentration o unripe papayas is speculate tae cause uterine contractions, whilk can lead tae a miscarriage. Papaya seed extracts in muckle doses hae a contraceptive effect on rats an monkeys, but in smaw doses haes nae effect on the unbairn ainimals.

Excessive consumption o papaya can cause carotenemia, the yellaein o soles an palms, that is itherwise hairmless. Housomever, a vera lairge dose would need tae be consumed; papaya contains aboot 6% o the level o beta carotene foond in carrots (the maist common cause o carotenemia).[17]

Gallery[eedit | eedit soorce]

See also[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Papaya". 1987. 
  2. http://canal.ugr.es/life-sciences/item/6354-scientists-decipher-fruit-tree-genome-for-the-first-time
  3. [1]
  4. Merriam-Webster Online: pawpaw
  5. Delbridge, A., and J. R. L. Bernard. 1988 The Macquarie Concise Dictionary. The Macquarie Library: Sydney.
  6. 6.0 6.1 http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/pae/botany/botany_map/articles/article_03.html
  7. "Papaya Vs Papaw". News (15 April 2005). Horticulture Australia. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  8. Sagon, Candy (13 October 2004). "Maradol Papaya". Market Watch (13 Oct 2004) (The Washington Post). Retrieved 21 July 2011. 
  9. "Euphytica, Volume 181, Number 2". SpringerLink. doi:10.1007/s10681-011-0388-z. Retrieved 2012-06-29. 
  10. Hawaiipapaya.com
  11. Ronald, Pamela and McWilliams, James (14 May 2010) Genetically Engineered Distortions The New York Times, accessed 1 October 2012
  12. http://www.harc-hspa.com/publications/TF5.pdf
  13. Danielone, a phytoalexin from papaya fruit. Echeverri F., Torres F., Quinones W., Cardona G., Archbold R., Roldan J., Brito I., Luis J.G., and LahlouU E.-H., Phytochemistry, 1997, vol. 44, no2, pp. 255-256, INIST:2558881
  14. Green Papaya Salad Recipe - ThaiTable.com
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Titanji, V.P.; Zofou, D.; Ngemenya, M.N. (2008). "The Antimalarial Potential of Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Malaria in Cameroonian Folk Medicine". African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 5 (3): 302–321. PMC 2816552. PMID 20161952. 
  16. Entry on Harrison Ford's back treatment.
  17. "Search the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference". Nal.usda.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-18. 
  18. Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

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