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Papaya tree an fruit, frae Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887)
Scientific classification
Kinrick: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Brassicales
Faimily: Caricaceae
Genus: Carica
Species: C. papaya
Binomial name
Carica papaya
Papaya ootput in 2005, shawn as a percentage o the tap producer, Brazil (1.7 megatonnes)

The papaya /pəˈpə/ or /pəˈpɑːjə/ (frae Carib via Spanyie), papaw, or pawpaw is the fruit o the plant Carica papaya, the sole species in the genus Carica o the plant faimily Caricaceae. It is native tae the tropics o the Americaes, mibbe frae soothren Mexico an neibourin Central Americae.[1] It wis first cultivatit in Mexico several centuries afore the emergence o the Mesoamerican classical ceevilizations.

The papaya is a lairge, tree-lik plant, wi a single stem grawin frae 5 tae 10 m (16 tae 33 ft) taw, wi spirally arranged leafs confined tae the tap o the trunk. The laicher trunk is conspicuously scarred whaur leafs an fruit wis borne. The leafs is lairge, 50–70 cm (20–28 in) in diameter, deeply palmately lobed, wi seiven lobes. Unuisually for sic lairge plants, the trees is dioecious. The tree is uisually unbranched, unless lopped. The flouers is seimilar in shape tae the flouers o the Plumeria, but is a fair feck smawer an wax-lik. Thay appear on the axils o the leafs, maturin intae lairge fruit - 15–45 cm (5.9–17.7 in) lang an 10–30 cm (3.9–11.8 in) in diameter. The fruit is ripe whan it feels saft (sae saft as a ripe avocado or a bit safter) an its skin haes attained an amber tae orange hue.

Carica papaya wis the first transgenic fruit tree tae hae its genome deciphered.[2]

Common names[eedit | eedit soorce]

Carica papaya plants an thair fruits is kent bi different names aroond the Inglish-speakin warld:

  • North Americae an Belize: papayas
  • Unitit Kinrick: The fruit is uisually cried papaya but is forby kent as papaw or pawpaw [3]
  • Africae: pawpaw or papaw [4][5]

Cultivation[eedit | eedit soorce]

A papaya seedling.

Oreeginally frae soothren Mexico (parteecularly Chiapas an Veracruz), Central Americae, an northren Sooth Americae, the papaya is nou cultivatit in maist tropical kintras. In cultivation, it graws rapidly, fruitin athin three year. It is, housomever, heichly frost-sensitive, limitin its production tae tropical lands.

Pests an diseases[eedit | eedit soorce]

Papayas is susceptible tae the papaya ringspot virus (PRV), whilk causes prematur moltin an malformation o the leafs.[6] In the 1990s, the virus threatened tae wipe oot Hawaii's papaya industry completely.

The papaya is an aa susceptible tae the fruit flee, a smaa, wasp-lik insect that lays its eggs in young fruit.

Cultivars[eedit | eedit soorce]

Yellae flesh papayas, wi decorative flouers
Papaya wi reid flesh

Twa kins o papayas are commonly grawn. Ane haes sweet, reid (or orangish) flesh, an the ither haes yellae flesh; in Australie, thay are cried "reid papaya" an "yellae papaw", respectively.[7] Either kynd, picked green, is cried a "green papaya."

The lairge-fruitit, reid-fleshed 'Maradol', 'Sunrise', an 'Caribbean Reid' papayas aften sauld in US mercats are commonly grawn in Mexico an Belize.[8]

In 2011 Philippine researchers reportit thay bi intergeneric hybridisation atween carica papaya an Vasconcellea quercifolia thay haed developed conventionally bred, nongenetically engineered papaya that are provin resistant tae PRV.[9]

Genetically modified cultivars[eedit | eedit soorce]

In response tae the PRV ootbreak in Hawaii, genetically altered papaya wis generated an brocht tae mercat (includin 'SunUp' an 'Rainbow') that hae some papaya ringspot virus (PRV) DNA incorporatit intae the DNA o the plant is resistant tae PRVs.[6][10] This wis sae successfu that bi 2010, 80% o Hawaiian papaya plants wis genetically modified.[11][12]

Uses[eedit | eedit soorce]

Papayas can be uised as a fuid, a cuikin aid an in tradeetional medicine. The stem an bark mey be uised in raip production.

Meat tenderizin[eedit | eedit soorce]

Baith green papaya fruit an the tree's latex is rich in papain, a protease uised for tenderizin meat an ither proteins. Its ability tae break doun teuch meat feebres wis uised for thoosands o years bi indigenous Americans. It is nou includit as a component in powdered meat tenderizers.

Nutrients, phytochemicals an culinary practices[eedit | eedit soorce]

Papayas, raw
Nutreetional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy179 kJ (43 kcal)
10.82 g
Succars7.82 g
Dietary fibre1.7 g
0.26 g
0.47 g
Vitamin A equiv.
47 μg
274 μg
89 μg
Thiamine (B1)
0.023 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.027 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.357 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
0.191 mg
Vitamin B6
0.038 mg
Folate (B9)
38 μg
Vitamin C
62 mg
Vitamin E
0.3 mg
Vitamin K
2.6 μg
20 mg
0.25 mg
21 mg
0.04 mg
10 mg
182 mg
8 mg
0.08 mg
Ither constituents
Lycopene1828 µg

Percentages are approximated uisin US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Papaya fruit is a soorce o nutrients lik provitamin A carotenoids, vitamin C, folate an dietary feebre. Papaya skin, pulp an seeds contain a variety o phytochemicals, includin lycopene an polyphenols. In preliminary research, danielone, a phytoalexin foond in papaya fruit, shawed antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloesporioides, a pathogenic fungus o papaya.[13]

Ripe papaya fruits in tree

The ripe fruit o the papaya is uisually eaten raw, withoot skin or seeds. The unripe green fruit can be eaten cuiked, uisually in curries, salads, an stews. Green papaya is uised in Sootheast Asie cuikin, baith raw an cuiked.[14] In Thai cuisine, papaya is uised tae mak Thai salads lik som tam and Thai curries lik kaeng som whan still no fou ripe. In Indonesian cuisine, the unripe green fruits an young leafs are boiled for uise as pairt o lalab salad, while the flouer buds is sautéed an stir-fried wi chillies an green tomataes as Minahasan papaya flouer vegetable dish. Papayas hae a relatively heich amoont o pectin, that can be uised tae mak jellies. The smell o ripe, fresh papaya flesh can strike some fowk as unpleasant.

The black seeds o the papaya are edible an hae a snell, spicy taste. Whiles, thay are groond an uised as a substitute for black pepper.

In some pairts o Asie, the young leafs o the papaya is steamed an etten lik spinach.

In some pairts o the warld, papaya leafs are made intae tea as a treatment for malaria.[15] Antimalarial an antiplasmodial activity haes been notit in some preparations o the plant,[15] but the mechanism is nae unnerstood an no treatment method based on thir results haes been scientifically proven.[15]

Herbal medicine[eedit | eedit soorce]

Papaya is mercatit in tablet form tae remedy digestive problems.

Papain is an aa applee'd topically in kintras whaur it graws for the treatment o cuts, rashes, stings an burns. Papain ointment is commonly made frae fermented papaya flesh, an is applee'd as a gel-lik paste. Harrison Ford wis treatit for a ruptured disc incurred durin filmin o Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom bi papain injections.[16]

Allergies an side effects[eedit | eedit soorce]

Unripe green papayas

Papaya is frequently uised as a hair conditioner, but shoud be uised in smaa amoonts. Papaya releases a latex fluid whan nae quite ripe, that can cause irritation an provoke allergic reaction in some fowk.

The latex concentration o unripe papayas is speculate tae cause uterine contractions, whilk can lead tae a miscarriage. Papaya seed extracts in muckle doses hae a contraceptive effect on rats an monkeys, but in smaw doses haes nae effect on the unbairn ainimals.

Excessive consumption o papaya can cause carotenemia, the yellaein o soles an palms, that is itherwise hairmless. Housomever, a vera lairge dose wad need tae be consumed; papaya contains aboot 6% o the level o beta carotene foond in carrots (the maist common cause o carotenemia).[17]

Gallery[eedit | eedit soorce]

See also[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Papaya". 1987.
  2. Archived 2013-05-21 at the Wayback Machine
  3. "Archived copy". Archived frae the original on 21 Mey 2013. Retrieved 10 Mey 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. Merriam-Webster Online: pawpaw
  5. Delbridge, A., and J. R. L. Bernard. 1988 The Macquarie Concise Dictionary. The Macquarie Library: Sydney.
  6. a b
  7. "Papaya Vs Papaw". News (15 April 2005). Horticulture Australia. Archived frae the original on 28 Mairch 2012. Retrieved 22 Julie 2011.
  8. Sagon, Candy (13 October 2004). "Maradol Papaya". Market Watch (13 Oct 2004). The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 Julie 2011.
  9. "Euphytica, Volume 181, Number 2". SpringerLink. doi:10.1007/s10681-011-0388-z. Retrieved 29 Juin 2012.[deid airtin]
  10. Archived 2015-01-07 at the Wayback Machine
  11. Ronald, Pamela and McWilliams, James (14 May 2010) Genetically Engineered Distortions The New York Times, accessed 1 October 2012
  12. Archived 2012-03-31 at the Wayback Machine
  13. Danielone, a phytoalexin from papaya fruit. Echeverri F., Torres F., Quinones W., Cardona G., Archbold R., Roldan J., Brito I., Luis J.G., and LahlouU E.-H., Phytochemistry, 1997, vol. 44, no2, pp. 255-256, INIST:2558881
  14. "Green Papaya Salad Recipe -". Archived frae the original on 18 Mey 2011. Retrieved 10 Mey 2013.
  15. a b c Titanji, V.P.; Zofou, D.; Ngemenya, M.N. (2008). "The Antimalarial Potential of Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Malaria in Cameroonian Folk Medicine". African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 5 (3): 302–321. PMC 2816552. PMID 20161952.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors leet (link)
  16. Entry on Harrison Ford's back treatment.
  17. "Search the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference". Archived frae the original on 3 Mairch 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
  18. Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Rake fer Papaya i the
Scots Wiktionar, the free Scots dictionar.