Libie Ceevil War (2011)

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2011 Libie ceevil war
Pairt o the Arab Ware
Date15 Februar – 23 October 2011 (8 months, 8 days)

Overthrow o Gaddafi govrenment


Libie National Transitional Council[1]


UN member states enforcin UNSC Resolution 1973:

Spillower conflict:

 Tunisie (minor border clashes)

 Libie Libie Arab Jamahiriya

Commanders an leaders

 Libie Mustafa Abdul Jalil
(Chairman o the NTC)[27]
 Libie Abdul Hafiz Ghoga
(Vice-Chairman o the NTC)
 Libie Mahmoud Jibril
(Interim Libie Prime Meenister)
 Libie Jalal al-Digheily
 Libie Omar El-Hariri[28]
 Libie Suleiman Mahmoud[29]
 Libie Abdul Fatah Younis 
(assassinatit 28 Julie in Benghazi)
 Libie Khalifa Belqasim Haftar
 Libie Mahdi al-Harati
 Libie Abu Oweis
 Libie Abdul Hassan
 Libie Khalid Shahmah
 Qatar Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
 Qatar Hamad bin Ali al-Attiyah

Anders Fogh Rasmussen
(Secretar General)
James G. Stavridis
Charles Bouchard
(Operational Commander)[30]
Ralph Jodice
(Air Commander)
Rinaldo Veri
(Maritime Commander)
Carter Ham

Stephen Harper
(Prime Meenister o Canadae)
Marc Lessard
Lars Løkke Rasmussen
(Prime Meenister o Denmark tae 3 Oct)
Helle Thorning-Schmidt
(Prime Meenister o Denmark frae 3 Oct)
Knud Bartels
Nicolas Sarkozy
(Presse o Fraunce)
Édouard Guillaud
Silvio Berlusconi
(Prime Meenister o Italy)
Rinaldo Veri
Jens Stoltenberg
(Prime Meenister o Norawa)
Harald Sunde
Traian Băsescu
(Preses o Romanie)
Ștefan Dănilă
 Unitit Kinrick David Cameron
(Prime Meenister o the Unitit Kinrick)
 Unitit Kinrick Sir Stuart Peach
(Chief o Jynt Operations)
 United States Barack Obama
(Preses o the Unitit States)
 Unitit States Carter Ham
 Unitit States Sam Locklear
 Jordan Abdullah II
(Keeng o Jordan)
 Swaden Sverker Göranson

 UAE Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan
(Preses o the United Arab Emirates)

Template:Kintra data Libie Arab Muammar Gaddafi 
Muammar Gaddafi's sons:
 Libie Saif al-Islam Gaddafi
(Capturt efter war's end)
 Libya Khamis Gaddafi [31]
 Libie Mutassim Gaddafi 
 Libie Saif al-Arab Gaddafi [32]
 Libie Al-Saadi Gaddafi
Military leaders:
 Libie Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr 
(Meenister o Defence)
Abdullah Senussi
(Captured efter war's end)
Massoud Abdelhafid
(Heid o the secret polis)
Baghdadi Mahmudi (POW)
(Libie Prime Meenister)
Mahdi al-Arabi (POW)
(Deputy chief o staff o the airmy an commander o special forces)
Mohamed Abu Al-Quasim al-Zwai (POW)
(Secretary-General o the General Fowkcongress)
Abuzed Omar Dorda (POW)
(Heid o Naitional Intelligence)
 Libie Khouildi Hamidi (POW)
(Deputy heid o the secret polis)
 Libie Khaled Kaim (POW)
(Deputy foreign meenister)
 Libie Abdul Ati al-Obeidi (POW)
(Foreign Meenister)
 Libie Ahmad Ramdan (POW)
(Meenister o Information)
 Libie Salih Rajab al-Mismari
(Meenister o Public Security)
 Libie Moussa Ibrahim
(Gaddafi Spokesman)
 Libie Hasan al-Kabir al-Gaddafi
(Heid o Revolutionary Guard Corps)
 Libie Rafi al-Sharif
(Head of the Navy)
 Libie Ali Sharif al-Rifi
(General and Head of the Air Force)
 Libie Ali Kana
(General and commander of southern forces)
 Libie Awad Hamza
(Infantry leader)
 Libie Bashir Hawadi
(General and field commander)
 Libie Mustafa al-Kharoubi
(General and military strategist)
 Libya Nasr al-Mabrouk
(General and primary police commander)
 Libie Ahmed al-Gaddafi al-Qahsi 
(Airmy colonel an Gaddafi's cousin)
 Libie Mansour Dhao (POW)
(Heid o Gaddafi's personal guards)

 Libie Muftah Anaqrat 
(Brigadier General)

17,000 defectin sodgers an volunteers[33] 125,000-150,000 volunteers bi war's end
(NTC estimate)[34]

International Forces: Numerous air and maritime forces (see here)
20,000[35]–40,000[36] sodgers an militia
Casualties an losses

5,667–7,059 opposition fechters an supporters killed, 2,886–3,005 missin (see here)

 Unitit Kinrick 1 airman killed in traffic accident in Italy[37]

 Netherlands 3 Dutch Marines captured (later released)[38]
2,580–3,231 soldiers killed (see here),
7,000 captured*[39]
Estimated total casualties on both sides, including civilians:
25,000[40]–30,000 killed, 4,000 missing[41]
*Large number of loyalist or immigrant civilians, not military personnel, among those captured by rebels,[42] only an estimated minimum of 1,542+ confirmed as soldiers[43]

The Libie ceevil war[44] (an aw referred tae as the Libie revolution[45]) wis an airmit conflict in the North African state o Libie, focht atween forces lyal tae Colonel Muammar Gaddafi an those seeking tae oust his govrenment.[46][47] The war wis precedit bi protests in Benghazi beginnin on 15 Februar 2011, which led tae clashes wi security forces that fired on the croud.[48] The protests escalatit intae a rebellion that spread athort the kintra,[49] wi the forces opposin Gaddafi establishin an interim govrenin body, the Naitional Transitional Cooncil.

The Unitit Naitions Security Cooncil passed an initial resolution on 26 Februar, freezin the assets o Gaddafi an his inner circle an restrictin thair traivel, an referrit the matter tae the Internaitional Creeminal Court for investigation.[50] In early Mairch, Gaddafi's forces ralliet, pushed eastwards an re-teuk several coastal ceeties afore attackin Benghazi. A further U.N. resolution authorised member states tae establish an enforce a nae-flee zone ower Libie.[51] The Gaddafi government then annoonced a ceasefire, but failed tae uphauld it.[52]

In August, rebel forces engaged in a coastal offensive an teuk maist o thair lost territory, an capturit the caipital ceety o Tripoli,[53] while Gaddafi evadit captur an lyalists engagit in a rearguard campaign.[54] On 16 September 2011, the Naitional Transitional Cooncil wis recognised bi the Unitit Naitions as the legal representative o Libie, replacin the Gaddafi govrenment. Muammar Gaddafi remained at lairge till 20 October 2011, when he wis capturit an killed attemptin tae escape frae Sirt.[55] The Naitional Transitional Cooncil declarit the leeberation o Libie an the offeecial end o the war on 23 October 2011.[56]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

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  2. a b Dagher, Sam (21 Juin 2011). "Libya City Torn by Tribal Feud". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 Julie 2011.
  3. a b Von Rohr, Mathieu (26 Julie 2011). "Tribal Rivalries Complicate Libyan War". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 26 Julie 2011.
  4. "Libya Live Blog – 5 March". Al Jazeera. 5 Mairch 2011. Archived frae the original on 17 August 2011. Retrieved 26 Julie 2011.
  5. "NTC asks NATO to extend Libya presence". Al Jazeera English. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
  6. "Libya's Mustafa Abdul Jalil asks Nato to stay longer". BBC News. 26 October 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  7. Black, Ian (26-10-2011). "Qatar admits sending hundreds of troops to support Libya rebels". The Guardian. Retrieved 20-11-2011. Check date values in: |accessdate= and |date= (help)
  8. George Malbrunot (06-11-2011). "5 000 Forces spéciales du Qatar avaient été déployées en Libye". Le Figaro. Retrieved 20-11-2011. Check date values in: |accessdate= and |date= (help) (in French)
  9. Staff (29 July 2011). "Last Libyan Mission for Norway's F16S To Fly Tomorrow" Archived 2012-11-23 at the Wayback Machine. Agenzia Giornalistica Italia. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
  10. "Jordanian Fighters Protecting Aid Mission". The Jordan Times. 6 Apryle 2011. Retrieved 6 Apryle 2011.
  11. Staff (25 Mairch 2011). "UAE Updates Support to UN Resolution 1973". WAM (Emirates News Agency). Retrieved 26 Mairch 2011.
  12. "Libya's Tribal Politics Key to Gaddafi's Fate". Stabroek News. 23 Februar 2011. Retrieved 26 Julie 2011.
  13. "Is Libya's Gaddafi Turning to Foreign Mercenaries?". Reuters. 24 Februar 2011. Archived frae the original on 30 November 2011. Retrieved 6 Juin 2011.
  14. "Mali fears as Tuaregs return from Libya". Cape Town, South Africa: News24. 16 October 2011. Archived frae the original on 13 September 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
  15. "Gadhafi Using Foreign Children As Mercenaries In Libya". NPR. 3 Mairch 2011.
  16. Meo, Nick (27 Februar 2011). "African Mercenaries in Libya Nervously Await Their Fate". The Daily Telegraph. London.
  17. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named tuaregs1
  18. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named tuaregs2
  19. "Libya: Gaddafi and His Mali-Chad Tuareg Mercenaries". Afrik News. 24 Mairch 2011.
  20. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named tuaregs4
  21. Staff (19 February 2011) "Scores Die in Third Day of Libya's Anti-Gaddafi Protests – Gaddafi Recruits 'African Mercenaries' To Quell Protests". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
  22. Swaine, Jon (27 February 2011). "Libya: African Mercenaries 'Immune from Prosecution for War Crimes' – African Mercenaries Hired by the Gaddafi Regime To Kill Libyan Protesters Would Be Immune from Prosecution for War Crimes Due to a Clause in This Weekend's UN Resolution That Was Demanded by the United States". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
  24. "AJE Live Blog". 20 October 2011. Archived frae the original on 22 October 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  25. "Fighters clash again near Tripoli, several dead". Archived frae the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  26. Fresh clashes in Libya’s Bani Walid; U.N. says 7,000 held in militia prisons
  27. "Middle East Unrest – Live Blog". Reuters. Archived frae the original on 22 August 2019. Retrieved 6 Juin 2011.
  28. Staff (8 Mairch 2011). "Libya's Opposition Leadership Comes into Focus". Stratfor (via Business Insider). Retrieved 26 Mairch 2011.
  29. Staff (10 Mairch 2011). "The Battle for Libya: The Colonel Fights Back – Colonel Muammar Qaddafi Is Trying To Tighten His Grip on the West, While the Rebels' Inexperience Leaves Them Vulnerable in the East". The Economist. Retrieved 26 Mairch 2011.
  30. Staff (25 Mairch 2011). "Canadian To Lead NATO's Libya Mission". CBC News. Retrieved 26 Mairch 2011.
  31. "Libya: Bulldozers raze Gaddafi Bab al-Aziziya compound". 16 October 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  32. "Nato strike 'kills Gaddafi's youngest son' - Africa". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
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  34. "Armed militia members haven't been integrated into new Libya". Retrieved 30 November 2011.
  35. "Gadhafi Asks Obama To Call Off NATO Military Campaign". via CTV News. 6 Apryle 2011. Archived frae the original on 19 Januar 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  36. Staff (10 Mairch 2011). "Libya: How the Opposing Sides Are Armed". BBC News. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  37. "Airman Killed in Road Accident in Italy". BBC (retrieved 26 Oct 2011).
  38. Staff (3 Mairch 2011). "Three Dutch Marines Captured During Rescue in Libya". BBC News. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
  39. Wan, William (23 October 2011). "Prisoners in Libya languish without charge". Archived frae the original on 16 December 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  40. "Residents flee Gaddafi hometown". 3 October 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  41. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ap-20110908
  42. "Libyan Rebels Accused of Arbitrary Arrests, Torture". CNN. 5 Juin 2011.
  43. 300 preesoners in Benghazi,[1] Archived 2011-08-12 at the Wayback Machine 230 preesoners in Misrata,[2] 52 preesoners in Nalut,[3] 13 preesoners in Yafran,[4] 50 preesoners in al-Galaa,[5][deid airtin] 147 preesoners in Zintan [6] 600 preesoners in Tripoli [7] Archived 2012-03-30 at the Wayback Machine 150 [Battle of Sirte (2011)|prisoners in Sirte] minimum of 1,542 reported captured
  44. "Libya". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
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  46. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named vision
  47. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named vision2
  48. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named AmnestyRape
  49. Barker, Anne (24 Februar 2011). "Time Running Out for Cornered Gaddafi". ABC News. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
  50. Wyatt, Edward (26 Februar 2011). "Security Council Calls for War Crimes Inquiry in Libya". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 Februar 2011.
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  54. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named guardian-2011-08-24
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  56. "NTC declares 'Liberation of Libya'". Al Jazeera English. 23 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011.