Cascais is a coastal toun in Cascais Municipality in Portugal, 30 kilometres wast o Lisbon, wi aboot 35,000 residents. It is a cosmopolitan suburb o the Portuguese caipital an ane o the richest municipalities in Portugal. The umwhile fishin veelage gained fame as a resort for Portugal's ryal family in the late 19t century an early 20t century. Nouadays, it is a popular vacation spot for baith Portuguese an foreign tourists. It is locatit in the Estoril Coast (named efter Estoril, a ceevil parish), in the Greater Lisbon subregion. It haes an airport for general aviation servin the Lisbon Region in Tires (S. Domingos de Rana), Aeroporto Municipal de Cascais.
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History[eedit | eedit soorce]
The coastal settlement o Cascais oreeginatit in the 12t century, dependin admeenistratively on the toun o Sintra, locatit tae the north. In its humble beginnins, Cascais lived frae the products o the sea an land, but aaready in the 13t century, its fish production served the caipital Lisbon, locatit nearbi. Durin the 14t century, the population increased tae the ootside o the waws o its castle. Its prosperity led tae the admeenistrative unthirldom frae Sintra in 1364. The veelage an its surroondins wur awned bi a feudal laird; the maist famous o them wis João das Regras (dee'd 1404), a lawyer an professor o the University o Lisbon that wis involved in the ascension o Keeng John I tae pouer as the first Keeng o the Hoose o Aviz.
Syne the Middle Ages, Cascais lived frae fishin, maritime commerce (it wis a stop for ships sailin tae Lisbon), an frae agricultur, producin wine, olive ile, cereals, an fruits. Due tae its location close tae the Tagus estuary, it wis an aa seen as a strategic post in the defence o Lisbon. Aroond 1488, Keeng John II built a sma fortress in the veelage, locatit bi the sea. This medieval fortress wis no enough tae repel the invasion an in 1580, Spainyie troops led bi the Duke o Alba teuk the veelage durin the conflict that led tae the union o the Portuguese an Spainyie crouns. The fortress wis enlairged towards the end o the 16t century bi Keeng Philip I (Philip II o Spain), turnin it intae a typical renaissance citadel wi the characteristic flat profile an starn-shaped floorplan. Various fortresses wur built on the coast aroond Cascais durin the 17t century, an mony o them still exist.
In 1755, the great Lisbon earthquake destroyed a lairge portion o the veelage. Aroond 1774, the Marquis o Pombal, prime-meenister o Keeng José I, teuk protective measures for the commercialisation o the wine o Carcavelos an established the Ryal Factory o Wool in the veelage, which existit till the early 19t century. Durin the invasion o Portugal bi Napoleonic troops in 1807, the citadel o Cascais wis occupee'd bi the French, wi General Junot stayin some time in the veelage.
This situation o decadence stairtit tae chynge when Keeng Luís II decidit tae turn the citadel o Cascais intae his summer residence. Frae 1870 tae 1908, the Ryal Family came tae Cascais tae enjoy the sea, turnin the somnolent fishin veelage intae a cosmopolitan address. The citadel gained electric licht in 1878, the first in the kintra, thanks tae Keeng Luís. The veelage gained better roads tae Lisbon an Sintra, a casino, a bullfecht rin, a sport club, an impruivements in the basic infrastructure for the population. The railway arrived in 1889. Mony noble families built bonnie manions in Cascais, as can still be seen in the centre an surroondins o the toun.
In 1896, Keeng Carlos I, a lover o aw maritime activities, instawed in the citadel the first oceanographic laboratory in Portugal. The Keeng hissel led a total o 12 scientific expeditions tae the coast, anerlie endit in 1908 wi his assassination in Lisbon.
Anither important step in the touristic development o the aurie wis given in the first hauf o the 20t century in neighbourin Estoril, in which a casino wis built an the infrastructur for luxury vacations wis creatit aroond Monte Estoril.
Due tae Portugal's neutrality in Warld War II an the toun's elegance an ryal past, Cascais became hame tae mony o the exiled ryal families of Europe, including those o Spain, Italy, Hungary an Bulgarie.
Nouadays, Cascais an its surroondins are a famous vacation spot for the Portuguese an foreigners, aimin at baith the "jet-set" an normal tourism, who seek tae enjoy its beaches.
Tourism[eedit | eedit soorce]
The day, there is a lairge yacht harbour an several sma sand beaches in an aroond toun. Cascais is easily reached frae Lisbon bi caur, (A5 Lisboa-Cascais heich-gate), or bi frequent inexpensive commuter trains. It haes the ruins o a castle, an airt an sea museum, as well as pairks an the chairmin cobbled streets o the historic centre. The toun haes mony hotels an tourist apairtments as well as mony guid restaurants o varyin cost. It is a fine base tae uise for those visitin Lisbon an its environs who prefer tae stay ootside o the ceety yet in an equally urban an sophisticatit environment.
Cascais is surroondit bi popular beaches, such as Guincho Beach tae the wast, an the lush Sintra muntains tae the north. Some o its shoreline is cliff-y, attractin tourists for its seascapes an ither natural sichts such as the Boca do Inferno. It is an aa becomin a popular golf destination, wi ower 10 gowf courses nearby. Surfin, sailin, windsurfin, an kitesurfin are an aa popular in the region aroond Cascais due tae favourable weather, wind, an sea conditions. In 2007, Cascais wis the offeecial host o the ISAF Warld Championship in sailin for dinghies an racin yachts.
The municipality an aa hosts internaitional tennis an motorcyclin events an hostit for mony years the FIA F1 Portugal Grand Prix. The famous Estoril Casino is ane o the lairgest in Europe. Near the casino is the "Hotel Palácio" (Palace Hotel), a 5-star hotel whaur scenes o the James Bond movie On Her Majesty's Secret Service wur shot.
Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]
Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]
Cascais is twinned wi:
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Cascais.|