Yekaterinburg

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Yekaterinburg (Scots)
Екатеринбург (Roushie)
-  Ceety[citation needit]  -
Catherineburg.JPG
The skyline o Yekaterinburg
Map of Russia - Sverdlovsk Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location o Sverdlovsk Oblast in Roushie
Yekaterinburg is located in Sverdlovsk Oblast
Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
Coordinates: 56°50′N 60°35′E / 56.833°N 60.583°E / 56.833; 60.583
Coat of Arms of Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk oblast).svg
Flag of Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk oblast).svg
Coat o airms
Banner
Ceety Day 3rd Seturday o August[citation needit]
Admeenistrative status
Kintra Roushie
Federal subject Sverdlovsk Oblast
Admeenistrative center o Sverdlovsk Oblast[citation needit]
Municipal status
Urban okrug Yekaterinburg Urban Okrug[citation needit]
Head[1] Yevgeny Porunov[1]
Representative body Ceety Duma[citation needit]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census,
preliminary)
1,350,136 inhabitants[2]
Rank in 2010 4t
Population (2002 Census) 1,293,537 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2002 5t
Time zone YEKT (UTC+06:00)[4]
Founded 18 November 1723[citation needit]
Previous names Yekaterinburg (until 1924),[5]
Sverdlovsk (until 1991)[5]
Postal code(s) 620000[citation needit]
Dialin code(s) +7 343[citation needit]
Offeecial wabsteid

Yekaterinburg (Roushie: Екатеринбу́рг; IPA: [jɪkətʲɪrʲɪnˈburk], romanizit as Ekaterinburg an aw) is the fowert-lairgest ceety in Roushie wi a population o 1,398,889 (2012). It is situatit in the middle o the Eurasie continent, on the border o Europe an Asie.[6][7]

Yekaterinburg is the admeenistrative centre o Sverdlovsk Oblast an the main industrial an cultural center o the Ural Federal Destrict. Atween 1924 an 1991, the ceety wis namit Sverdlovsk (Свердло́вск) efter the Communist pairty leader Yakov Sverdlov.

Internationally Yekaterinburg is best kent as a ceety whaur the last Roushie Tsar Nicholas II an his family wur executit in 1918.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Statue o Vasily Tatishchev an Georg Wilhelm de Grennin
Snaw-covered statue o Yakov Sverdlov

It was founded in 1723 bi Vasily Tatishchev an Georg Wilhelm de Gennin an namit efter Tsar Peter the Great's wife Catherine I (Yekaterina).[8] The offeecial date o the ceety's foundation is 18 November 1723.[8] It wis grantit toun status in 1796.

Suin efter the October Revolution, on 17 Julie 1918, Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra, an their childer Grand Duchesses Olga, Tatyana, Maria, Anastasia, an Tsarevich Alexey wur executit bi the Bolsheviks at the Ipatiev Hoose in this ceety. Ither members o the Romanov faimily wur killed at Alapayevsk the day efter. In 1977, the Ipatiev Hoose wis demolished bi order o Boris Yeltsin, tae prevent it frae bein uised as a rallyin location for monarchists. He later became the first Preses o Roushie an representit the fowk at the funeral of the Tsar in 1998.[9]

Cathedral on the blood stands on the steid o the Ipatiev House, whaur the Romanovs—the last ryal faimily o Roushie—wur executit

Durin the 1930s, Yekaterinburg wis ane o several places developit bi the Soviet govrenment as a centre o hivy industrie, durin which time the famous Uralmash wis built. Then, durin Warld War II, mony state technical institutions an whole factories wur relocatit tae Yekaterinburg awa frae war-affectit auries (maistly Moscow), wi mony o thaim stayin in Yekaterinburg efter the victory. The Hermitage Museum collections wur pairtly evacuatit frae Leningrad tae Yekaterinburg (kent as Sverdlovsk durin Soviet times) in July 1941 an remained thare till October 1945 an aw.

The lookalike five-story apairtment blocks that remain the day in Kirovsky, Chkalovsky, an ither residential auries o Yekaterinburg sprang up in the 1960s, unner the direction o Khrushchev's govrenment.

On 1 Mey 1960, an American U-2 spy plane, pilotit bi Francis Gary Powers while unner the employ o the CIA, wis shot doun ower Sverdlovsk Oblast. He wis captured, put on trial, foond guilty o espionage an sentencit tae seiven years o hard labour. He servit anerlie aboot a year afore bein exchyngit for Rudolph Abel, a heich-rankin KGB spy, who haed been apprehendit in the Unitit States in 1957.

Thare wis an anthrax outbreak in Yekaterinburg in Aprile an Mey 1979, which wis attributit tae a release frae the Sverdlovsk-19 militar facility.[10]

Durin the 1991 coup d'état attempt, Sverdlovsk, the hame ceety o Preses Boris Yeltsin, wis selectit bi him as a reserve caipital for the Roushie Federation, in the event that Moscow became too dangerous for the Roushie govrenment. A reserve cabinet heidit bi Oleg Lobov wis sent tae the ceety, whaur Yeltsin enjoyed strang popular support at that time.[11] Shortly efter the failur o the coup an subsequent dissolution o the Soviet Union, the ceety regained its historical name Yekaterinburg.

Admeenistrative an municipal status[eedit | eedit soorce]

Yekaterinburg is the admeenistrative centre o the oblast.[12] Athin the framewirk o the admeenistrative diveesions, it is, thegither wi twinty-nine landwart localities, incorporatit as the Ceety o Yekaterinburg[13]—an admeenistrative unit wi the status equal tae that o the destricts.[12] As a municipal diveesion, the Ceety o Yekaterinburg is incorporatit as Yekaterinburg Urban Okrug.[14]

Geografie an climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Central Yekaterinburg an the Iset River

Yekaterinburg is situatit on the border o Europe an Asie, 1,667 kilometers (1,036 mi) east o Moscow, on the eastren side o the Ural Muntains on the Iset River. It is surroondit bi pairtially firthit plains, mainly cultivatit for agricultural purposes, an sma lakes. The city featurs a humid continental climate (Dfb) unner the Köppen climate classification. The winter lasts for aboot sax months—frae October till the middle o April—an the temperatur mey fall tae −45 °C (−49 °F), tho rarely lawer than −20 °C (−4 °F) tae −25 °C (−13 °F). Simmer in the Urals is short, wi wairm weather for anerlie 65–70 days an an average temperatur o +18 °C (64 °F). The ceety's location "ahint" the muntain range an heichlie variable winds mean that the weather is quite chyngeable frae ane day tae the next an frae year tae year.

Climate data for Yekaterinburg
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
9.4
(48.9)
17.3
(63.1)
28.8
(83.8)
33.4
(92.1)
35.6
(96.1)
38.8
(101.8)
37.2
(99.0)
31.9
(89.4)
24.7
(76.5)
13.5
(56.3)
5.9
(42.6)
38.8
(101.8)
Average heich °C (°F) −9.1
(15.6)
−6.8
(19.8)
1.0
(33.8)
9.8
(49.6)
17.4
(63.3)
23.0
(73.4)
24.4
(75.9)
21.1
(70.0)
14.5
(58.1)
6.8
(44.2)
−2.8
(27.0)
−7.9
(17.8)
7.6
(45.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −12.6
(9.3)
−11.1
(12.0)
−3.8
(25.2)
4.3
(39.7)
11.3
(52.3)
17.1
(62.8)
19.0
(66.2)
15.9
(60.6)
9.8
(49.6)
3.4
(38.1)
−5.8
(21.6)
−11
(12.2)
3.0
(37.4)
Average laich °C (°F) −15.7
(3.7)
−14.5
(5.9)
−7.6
(18.3)
0.0
(32.0)
6.2
(43.2)
12.1
(53.8)
14.4
(57.9)
11.9
(53.4)
6.4
(43.5)
0.7
(33.3)
−8.3
(17.1)
−13.7
(7.3)
−0.7
(30.7)
Record laich °C (°F) −44.6
(−48.3)
−42.4
(−44.3)
−39.2
(−38.6)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−13.5
(7.7)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.5
(34.7)
−1
(30)
−9
(16)
−26.6
(−15.9)
−39.2
(−38.6)
−46.7
(−52.1)
−46.7
(−52.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 26
(1.02)
20
(0.79)
20
(0.79)
28
(1.1)
50
(1.97)
74
(2.91)
89
(3.5)
72
(2.83)
58
(2.28)
39
(1.54)
33
(1.3)
28
(1.1)
537
(21.14)
humidity 79 75 68 60 57 63 68 73 75 75 78 79 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 46.5 96.1 164.3 207.0 257.3 273.0 269.7 217.0 144.0 77.5 51.0 37.2 1,840.6
Source no. 1: pogoda.ru.net[15]
Source no. 2: HKO

Population[eedit | eedit soorce]

Aquamarine apairtment complex wi the toppit oot 190-meter Antey3 skyscraper in the backgrund

Haein decreased durin the 1990s, the population stairtit tae growe slowly in the 21st century.

Demografic evolution
1724 1781 1820 1861 1917 1926 1939
4,000 7,969 13,026 19,832 71,590 134,800 423,000
1959 1970 1979 1989 2002 2010
778,600 1,025,000 1,211,200 1,364,621[16] 1,293,537[17] 1,349,772[2]

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

The main auries o the ceety's industrie are machinery, metal processin, an ferrous an nan-ferrous metallurgie,

Recently the commercial economy haes impruivit, an business centers like Yekaterinburg-Ceety hae been planned. Ane o the tawest biggins in the aurie Antey 3 is a skyscraper which is nou complete.

Ural Airlines haes its heid office in Yekaterinburg.[18]

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Auld railwey station
The Rastorguyev-Kharitonov Palace, built in 1794–1820

Yekaterinburg is an important railwey junction on the Trans-Siberie Railwey, wi lines reachin aw pairts o the Ural Muntains an the rest o Roushie.

As the economy grew stranger efter the slump o the 1990s, several European airlines stairtit or resumit fleein tae the ceety's Koltsovo Internaitional Airport (SVX). These include Turkish Airlines, Lufthansa, Austrian Airlines an Finnair.

Yekaterinburg is servit bi the smawer Yekaterinburg Aramil Airport an aw.

The ceety's public transit netwirk includes mony tram, bus, trolleybus, Marshrutka routes an Yekaterinburg Metro which opened in 1991. The day, the Yekaterinburg Metro consists o ane line, wi a total o aicht stations.

Education[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main biggin o the Ural Federal University

The Ural Branch o the Roushie Academy o Sciences (UB RAS), as well as numerous scientific research institutes an establishments are situatit in Yekaterinburg. Wi its 16 state-awned universities an educational academies, as well as a nummer o private heicher education institutions, Yekaterinburg is considered the leadin educational an scientific center o the Urals. These institutions include the Ural Federal University (on base Ural State University an Ural State Technical University), Ural State Pedagogical University, Ural State University o Forestry, Ural State Minin University, Ural State University o Railway Transport, Roushie State Vocational Pedagogics University, Ural State University of Economics, Militar Institute o Airtillery, Ural State Conservatory, Ural State Agricultural Academy, Ural State Law Academy, Ural State Academy o Medicine, Ural State Academy o Performin Airts, Ural Academy o Public Service, Institute o International Relations, an the Urals Academy o Airchitectur.

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety haes several dozen libraries, includin the V. G. Belinsky Scientific Library, which is the lairgest public library in Sverdlovsk Oblast.

Famous for its theatres, Yekaterinburg is hame tae some vera popular theatre companies an aw: the Yekaterinburg Academic Ballet and Opera Company, the Sverdlovsk Academic Theater of Musical Comedy, the Yekaterinburg Academic Dramatic Theater, the Yekaterinburg Theater for Young Spectators, the Volkhonka (a popular chamber theatre), an the Kolyada Theater (a chamber theatre foondit bi Roushie playwricht, producer an actor Nikolai Kolyada). Yekaterinburg is the centre o New Drama, a muivement o contemporary Roushie playwrichts Nikolai Kolyada, Vasily Sigarev, Konstantin Kostenko, the Presnyakov brithers, an Oleg Bogayev. Yekaterinburg is aften cried the caipital o contemporary dance for a nummer o famous dance companies residin in the ceety: the Kipling, the Provincial Dances, the Tantstrest, an a special depairtment o contemporary dance at the Yekaterinburg University o Humanities.

A nummer o popular Roushie rock baunds, such as Urfin Dzhyus, Chaif, Chicherina, Nautilus Pompilius, Nastya, Trek, Agata Kristi an Smyslovye Gallyutsinatsii, wur oreeginally formit in Yekaterinburg (Ural Rock is aften considered as a pairticular variety o rock muisic. Yekaterinburg an Saunt Petersburg are actually considered tae be the main centres o the genre in Roushie). An aw, some famous opera singers—Boris Shtokolov, Yuri Gulyayev, Vera Bayeva—graduatit frae the Urals State Conservatory. The Ural Philharmonic Orchestra (currently conductit bi Dmitry Liss), foondit bi Mark Paverman an locatit in Yekaterinburg, is vera popular in Roushie an in Europe an aw, as well as the Ural Academic Popular Chorus, a famous fowk-singin an dance ensemble.

There are ower thirty museums in Yekaterinburg, includin several museums o Ural minerals an jewelery, airt galleries, ane o the lairgest collections onywhaur o Kasli mouldins (a traditional kynd o cast-iron sculptur in the Urals), an the famous Shigirskaya Kladovaya (Шигирская кладовая), or Shigir Collection, which includes the auldest firth sculptur in the warld: the Shigir Idol, foond near Nevyansk an estimatit tae hae been made aboot 9,500 years ago. Anerlie here can you see a collection o Nevyansk icons- in the Nevyansk Icon Museum, wi mair than 300 icons representin the 18t throu the 20t centuries on display.

Vladimir Yelizarov's Recording Studio SVE Records is based in Yekaterinburg. The studio is in a private residence built in 1837 unner the teetle "The House of the Misters", in ane o the historical centers o Yekaterinburg ceety, twa hunder metres frae Verkh-Isetsky Lake. In 1987, American sangster Tina Turner recordit twa tracks, which later appeared on her 1989 album Foreign Affair, whilst in the ceety as pairt o her heichlie acclaimit Break Every Rule World Tour.

Yekaterinburg haes a circus biggin an aw, an ane o the tawest incomplete airchitectural structurs in the warld, the Yekaterinburg TV Tower. Thare are a nummer o unusual monuments an aw: e. g. a popular landmark Keybuird monument an a monument tae Michael Jackson.[19]

Sports[eedit | eedit soorce]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Berlin Buddy Bears - Present o the German Consulate General tae the Ceety o Yekaterinburg

Consulates[eedit | eedit soorce]

Unitit States,[21] Unitit Kinrick,[22] Germany,[23] Fraunce[24] an several ither kintras established their consulates in Yekaterinburg.

BRIC Summit[eedit | eedit soorce]

The BRIC kintras met for their first offeecial summit on 16 Juin 2009, in Yekaterinburg,[25] wi Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Dmitry Medvedev, Manmohan Singh, an Hu Jintao, the respective leaders o Brazil, Roushie, Indie an Cheenae, aw attendin.

The foreign meenisters o the BRIC kintras haed met in Yekaterinburg an aw previously on 16 Mey 2008.

Twin ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Yekaterinburg is a twinned wi the follaein:

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Eugenie Porunov has been elected the Head of Ekaterinburg – the Chairman of the Ekaterinburg city Duma". Ekburg.ru. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Предварительные итоги Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года" [Preliminary results of the 2010 All-Russian Population Census]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  3. "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  4. Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. 5.0 5.1 "History - Официальный портал Екатеринбурга". Ekburg.ru. 1934-01-07. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  6. http://www.ekburg.ru/english_version/
  7. http://www.ekaterinburg-ural.com/where-ekaterinburg-russia
  8. 8.0 8.1 Haywood, A. J. (2010). Siberia: A Cultural History, Oxford University Press, p. 32
  9. "President Yeltsin speaks about Tsar Murder". BBC News. 1998-07-17. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  10. Matthew S. Meselson, et al., "The Sverdlovsk Anthrax Outbreak of 1979", Science 266:5188 (18 November 1994): 1202–1208.
  11. Martin McCauley, "Who's who in Russia since 1900", Routledge, 1997: p.133.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Law #30-OZ
  13. Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 65 401», в ред. изменения №193/2012 от 1 января 2013 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 65 401, as amended by the Amendment #193/2012 of January 1, 2013. ).
  14. Law #85-OZ
  15. "Климат Екатеринбурга". 
  16. Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  17. "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  18. Home page. Ural Airlines. Retrieved on 18 July 2010. "Address: Utrenniy 1g, Yekaterinburg Russia, 620025, SITA SVXTOU6" Russian address: Home page. "Адрес: 620025, Россия, Екатеринбург, пер. Утренний, 1г"
  19. "Monument to Michael Jackson unveiled in Yekaterinburg: Photo gallery". :. 2011-06-29. Retrieved 2012-04-04. 
  20. Illustraded History Bandy[deid airtin]
  21. "Official website of the U.S. Consulate General in Yekaterinburg". Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  22. "Official website of the British Consulate General in Yekaterinburg". Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  23. "Official website of the German Consulate General in Yekaterinburg". Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  24. "Official website of the French Consulate General in Yekaterinburg". Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  25. "First summit for emerging giants". BBC News. 16 June 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2009. 

External links an sources[eedit | eedit soorce]