Gothenburg

Frae Wikipedia
Lowp tae: navigation, rake
ISO 639 Icon sco.svg The "Scots" that wis uised in this airticle wis written by a body that's mither tongue isna Scots. Gin ye can, please sort it.
Gothenburg
Göteborg
Ceety
Göteborg
Clockwise frae tap: Svenska Mässan, Lilla Bommen, Domkyrkan, the Gothenburg Opera, Götaplatsen

Coat of arms
Gothenburg is located in Sweden
Gothenburg
Gothenburg
Coordinates: 57°42′N 11°58′E / 57.700°N 11.967°E / 57.700; 11.967
Kintra Swaden
Province Västergötland an Bohuslän
Coonty Västra Götaland Coonty
Municipality Gothenburg Municipality,
Härryda Municipality,
Partille Municipality an
Mölndal Municipality
Chairter 1621
Area[1]
 • Ceety 450 km2 (170 sq mi)
 • Water 14.5 km2 (5.6 sq mi)  3.2%
 • Urban 203.67 km2 (78.64 sq mi)
 • Metro 3,717 km2 (1,435 sq mi)
Population (2011 (urban: 2010))[1][2]
 • Ceety 519,399
 • Density 1,200/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
 • Urban 549,839
 • Urban density 2,700/km2 (7,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 933,560
 • Metro density 250/km2 (650/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Website www.goteborg.se

Gothenburg (Swadish: Göteborg‎; pronounced [jœteˈbɔrj] ( listen)) is the seicont-lairgest ceety in Swaden (efter Stockholm) an the fift-lairgest in the Nordic kintras. Situatit on the soothwast coast o Swaden, the ceety proper haes a population o 512,754, wi 510,491 in the urban aurie an total o 926,654 inhabitants in the metropolitan aurie.[1]

The Ceety o Gothenburg wis foondit in 1621 bi Keeng Gustavus Adolphus. It lies bi the sea at the mooth o Göta Älv—the river runnin through the ceety—an is the lairgest seaport in the Nordic kintras.[3]

Gothenburg is an aa hame tae mony students, as the ceety includes baith the University o Gothenburg an Chalmers University o Technology. Volvo Cars wis foondit in Gothenburg in 1927.[4]

Name[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety wis named efter the Geats (Swadish: Götar varied: Geatas, Gautar, Goths, Gotar, Gøtar, Götar), the inhabitants o Gothia, nou soothren Sweden—i.e. "Defence of the Geats".[5] The river on whilk the ceety sits is the Göta Älv or Gothia River. Göta borg "Gothia Fortress" is the fort on the Göta River, biggit tae protect the port, whilk wis intendit tae be Swaden's commercial windae tae the wast.

In Dutch, Scots an Inglis, aw leids wi a lang history o bein spoken in this trade an maritime-orientit ceety, the name Gothenburg haes traditionally been uised for the ceety as in the Gothenburg Film Festival. The French form o the ceety name is Gothembourg. Gottenburg can an aa be seen in some aulder Inglis texts. Thir tradeetional forms are nou whiles replacit wi the uiss o the Swadish Göteborg, for ensaumple bi the Göteborgsoperan an the Göteborg Ballet. Housomeivver, Göteborgs universitet, previously designatit as Göteborg University in Inglis, chyngit tae the University o Gothenburg in 2008.[6] The municipality o Gothenburg haes an aa revertit tae the uiss o the Inglis name in internaitional contexts.[7] Ither auld variations in Swadish are Götheborgh, an the mair common, Götheborg. Ae Inglis text written in the late 15t century states the name as "Guthaeborg".

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main article: History o Gothenburg

Geography[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gothenburg is locatit on the wast coast, in Soothwastren Swaden, approximately hauf wey atween the Dens an Norse caipitals Copenhagen an Oslo. The location at the mooth o the river Göta älv, that feeds intae Kattegatt, an airm o the North Sea, haes helped the ceety grow in significance as a tradin ceety. The airchipelago o Gothenburg consists o rough, barren rocks an cliffs, that an aa is typical for the coast o Bohuslän. Due tae the Gulf Stream the ceety haes a mild climate an quite a lot o rain.

The Gothenburg Metropolitan Aurie (Stor-Göteborg) haes 816,931 inhabitants an extends tae the municipalities o Ale, Härryda, Kungälv, Lerum, Mölndal, Partille, Stenungsund, Tjörn, Öckerö in Västra Götaland Coonty, an Kungsbacka in Halland Coonty.

Angered, a suburb ootside Gothenburg, consists o Hjällbo, Rannebergen, Hammarkullen, Gårdsten an Lövgärdet. It is a Million Programme pairt o Gothenburg, like Rosengård in Malmö an Botkyrka in Stockholm. Angered haes 40,000 inhabitants in total. It lies north frae Gothenburg an is isolatit frae the rest o the ceety. Bergsjön is anither Million Programme suburb north o Gothenburg, Bergsjön haes 14,000 inhabitants. Biskopsgården is the lairgest multicultural suburb on the island Hisingen, whilk is a pairt o Gothenburg separatit bi the river.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gothenburg haes a oceanic climate accordin tae Köppen climate clessification. Despite its heich northren latitude, temperaturs are quite mild throughoot the year an hintle warmer nor places in similar latitude, or even somewha further sooth, mainly acause o the moderatin influence of the warm Gulf Stream. Durin the simmer, daylicht extends 17 oors, but lasts anerlie aroond 7 oors in late December.

Simmers are warm an pleasant wi average heich temperaturs o 19 tae 20 °C (66 tae 68 °F) an laws o 10 tae 12 °C (50 tae 54 °F), but temperaturs o 25–30 °C (77–86 °F) occur on mony days durin the simmer. Winters are cauld an windy wi temperaturs o aroond -5 tae 3 °C (23 to 37 °F), even though it rarely drops ablo −10 °C (14 °F). Precipitation is regular but generally moderate throughoot the year. Snaw mainly occurs frae December tae Mairch. Although snaw is no unuisual in November an Aprile an can whiles occur even in October an Mey.

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Haga destrict in Gothenburg, made amaist entirely oot o wood

The sea, trade an industrial history o the ceety is evident in the cultural life o Gothenburg. The greatest attraction in the ceety is the amusement pairk Liseberg (see Points o interest). Anither fact relatit tae the industrial heritage o the ceety is that mony o the cultural institutions, as well as hospitals an the university, war created thanks tae donations frae rich merchants an industrialists, for ensaumple the Röhsska Museum.

Thare are mony free theatre ensembles in the ceety, asides institutions like Gothenburg Ceety Theatre, Backa Theatre (youth theatre), an Folkteatern. On 29 December 2004, the Museum o Warld Cultur wis opened in Gothenburg, locatit naur Korsvägen.

The Gothenburg Film Festival, hauden ilka year, is the lairgest film festival in Scandinavie.[8] Similarly, the Gothenburg Beuk Fair, hauden ivery year in September, is the lairgest sic event in Scandinavie.

Citin the Financial Creesis the Internaitional Federation o Library Associations an Institutions haes annoonced that Gothenburg will host the 2010 Warld Library an Wittins Congress,[9] previously tae be hauden in Brisbane, Australie.

Airchitectur[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thare are gey few hooses left frae the 17t century whan the ceety wis foondit, syne aw but the military an ryal hooses war biggit o wood.[10] Ae example is Skansen Kronan.

The first major airchitecturally interestin period is the 18t century whan the East Indie Company makkit Gothenburg a important trade ceety. Imposin stane hooses wi a Clessical leuk war erectit aroond the canals. Ae example frae this period is the East Indie Hoose, whilk the day hooses Gothenburg’s Ceety Museum.

Mony biggins in the auld pairt o the ceety war biggit alang canals

In the 19t century, the walthy bourgeoisie begun tae muive ootside the ceety waws that haed protectit the ceety whan the Union o Denmark an Norawa wis still a threat. The style nou wis a eclectic, academic, somewha ower-decoratit style whilk the middle-cless favoured. The wirkin cless bided in the owercroudit ceety destrict Haga, in wooden hooses.

In the 19t century the first important toun plan efter the foondin o the ceety wis creatit, that led tae the construction o the main street, Kungsportsavenyn. The perhaps maist significant type o hooses o the ceety, Landshövdingehusen, war biggit in the end o the 19t century; three storey-hooses wi the first floor in stane an the ither twa in wood.

A gey important period in the airchitectural history o the ceety wis the early 20t century, whan the Naitional Romantic style dominatit. Amang the mony monumental biggin erectit the Masthugget Kirk can be mentioned.

Forby in the beginnin o the 1920s, whan the ceety celebratit its 300t anniversary, the Götaplatsen square wi its Neo-Clessical leuk[wrang wird or uiss o Scots] wis biggit.

Efter this the predominant style in Gothenburg an rest o Swaden wis Functionalism that especially dominatit the suburbs like Västra Frölunda an Bergsjön. The prominent Swadish functionalist airchitect Uno Åhrén served as the ceety planner here frae 1932 through 1943. In the 1950s, the lairge stadium Ullevi wis erectit whan Swaden hostit the 1958 FIFA Warld Cup.

The modren airchitectur o the ceety is being formed bi such airchitects as Gert Wingårdh wha stairtit as a Post-Modrenist in the 1980s.

A further remarkable construction is Brudaremossen TV Touer, ane o the few pairtially guyed touers in the warld.

Characteristic biggins[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Gothenburg Central Station is in the hert o the ceety, juist next tae Nordstan an Drottningtorget. The biggin haes been renovatit an expandit numerous times syne the grand openin in October 1858. In 2003 a major reconstruction wis finished whilk brocht the 19t century biggin in tae the 21st century expandin the capacity for trains, traivellers an shoppin. Not faur frae the central station is Skanskaskrapan, or mair commonly kent as "The Lipstick". It's 86 metres heich wi 22 floors an coloured in reid-white stripes. The skyscraper wis designed bi Ralph Erskine an biggit bi Skanska in the 1980s as the heidquarter for the company.

By the shore o Göta Älv is the Gothenburg Opera. It wis completit in 1994. The airchitect Jan Izikowitz wis inspired bi the landscape an described his veesion as "Something that maks yer mind float ower the squigglin landscape like the wings o a seagull".

Feskekôrka, or Fiskhallen,[11] is a fishmercat bi the Rosenlundskanalen in the hert o Gothenburg. Feskekôrkan wis opened on 1 November 1874 an the name comes frae bein compared wi a kirk.

The Gothenburg Law Court is in the Beaux-Arts style.

The Gothenburg Synagogue at Stora Nygatan, naur Drottningtorget, wis biggitt in 1855 accordin tae the designs o the German airchitect August Krüger.

Muisic[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gothenburg haes a diverse muisic community—the Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra is the maist weel-kent whan it comes tae clessical muisic. Gothenburg an aa wis the birthplace o the Swadish composer Kurt Atterberg. Baunds like The Soundtrack of Our Lives an Ace of Base are weel kent pop representatives o the ceety. Thare is an aw a active indie scene. For ensaumple, the muisicker Jens Lekman wis born in the suburb o Angered an named his 2007 release Night Falls Over Kortedala efter anither suburb (Kortedala). Ither internaitionally acclaimed indie airtists include the electro pop duos Studio, The Knife, Air France, The Tough Alliance, sangwriter José González an pop sangster El Perro Del Mar as well as genre-bendin quartet Little Dragon frontit bi vocalist Yukimi Nagano. Anither son o the ceety is ane o Swaden's maist popular sangsters, Håkan Hellström, wha aften includes mony places frae the ceety in his sangs.

Gothenburg's awn commercially successfu At the Gates, In Flames an Dark Tranquillity are creditit wi pioneerin melodic daith metal. Anither weel-kent baund o the Gothenburg scene is The Haunted. Progressive pouer metal baund Evergrey an aa oreeginate frae the ceety as dae pouer metal baunds HammerFall an Dream Evil.

The Metaltown Festival is a twa-day festival featurin hivy metal baunds, hauden in Gothenburg. It haes been arranged annually syne 2004, takin place at the Frihamnen venue. The maist recent festival in Juin 2010, includit baunds sic as Coheed and Cambria, Dark Tranquillity, Rammstein, Amon Amarth, an In Flames.

Fuid an drink[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety haes a number o starn chefs – ower the past decade, seiven o the Swadish Chef o the Year Awards hae been wan bi Gothenburgers.[12] A popular place tae buy fish ingredients is the Feskekôrka ("Fish Kirk"); a indoor fish mercat that got its name frae the biggin's resemblance tae a Gothic kirk. Five Gothenburg restaurants hae a starn in the 2008 Michelin Guide: 28 +, Basement, Fond, Kock & Vin, Fiskekrogen an Sjömagasinet.[13]

Sports[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wi aroond 20,000 sailboats an yachts scattered aboot the ceety, sailin is a popular sports activity in the region, pairticularly acause o the naurbi Gothenburg Airchipelago.
Ullevi Stadium, the lairgest ootdoor sports arena in Scandinavie

As in aw o Swaden, a variety o sports are follaed, includin but no limited tae fitbaa, ice hockey, basketbaw, team handbaw, an figure skatin. Thare is a varied amateur an professional sport clubs scene. Gothenburg is the birthplace o fitbaa in Swaden as the first fitbaa match in Swaden wis played there in 1892. The ceety's three major clubs, IFK Göteborg, Örgryte IS an GAIS share a total o 34 Swadish Championships atween them. IFK haes an aa wan the UEFA Cup twice. Ither notable clubs include BK Häcken (fitbaa), Pixbo Wallenstam IBK (floorbaw), multiple naitional team handbaw champion Redbergslids IK, an three time naitional ice hockey champion Frölunda HC, Gothenburg haes an aa a professional basketbaw team Gothia Basket. The bandy depairtment o GAIS, GAIS Bandy, played qualification matches tae the heichest diveesion Elitserien last saison.

The ceety's maist notable sports venues are Scandinavium (ice hockey), an Nya Ullevi (multisport) an the new-biggit Gamla Ullevi[14] (fitbaa).

Gothenburg haes hostit a nummer o internaitional sportin events includin the 1958 FIFA Warld Cup, the 1983 European Cup Winners' Cup Feenal, an NFL presaison gemme on 14 August 1988 atween the Chicago Bears an the Minnesota Vikings, the 1992 European Fitbaa Championship, the 1993 an the 2002 Warld Men's Handbaw Championship, the 1995 Warld Championships in Athletics, the 1997 Warld Championships in Swimmin (Short track), the 2002 Ice Hockey Warld Championships, the 2004 UEFA Cup feenal, the 2006 European Championships in Athletics, an the 2008 Warld Figure Skating Championships. Annual events hauden in the ceety are the Gothia Cup an the Göteborgsvarvet.

Gothenburg hostit the XIII FINA Warld Masters Championships 2010.[15] Divin, swimmin, synchronised swimmin an open watter competitions teuk place frae 28 Julie tae 7 August. The watter polo events wis hauden on the neeburin ceety o Borås.

Govrenment[eedit | eedit soorce]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns an sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Gothenburg is twinned wi:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Tätorternas landareal, folkmängd och invånare per km2 2005 och 2010" (xls) (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 10 May 2009. 
  2. Statistics Sweden: Folkmängd i riket, län och kommuner 30 juni 2011 och befolkningsförändringar 1 januari - 30 juni 2011
  3. Swedish National Encyclopedia (password needed)
  4. Volvo group history: Volvo's founders
  5. Hellquist, E. Svensk etymologisk ordbok. Pamp, B. Ortnamnen i Sverige. Svenska ortnamnsarkiv. AWE/Gebers serie om ortnamnen i våra landskap.
  6. "University of Gothenburg – the University's new English name" (Press release). University of Gothenburg. 4 February 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  7. "City of Gothenburg". 7.goteborg.se. Retrieved 2011-09-16. 
  8. "Göteborg International Film Festival 2008: Göteborg International Film Festival". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 24 January 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2009. 
  9. Göteborg, Sweden to host the 2010 IFLA World Library and Information Congress, IFLA 8 July 2009
  10. Nationalencyklopedin (NE), The Swadish Naitional Encyclopedia (Most of this section is based on NE)
  11. 100 utmärkta hus i Göteborg, Manne Ekman & Margareta Rydbo, Göteborgs Stadsmuseum, Alfa Print AB, Sundbyberg 2007 ISBN 978-91-85488-78-0 p. 78
  12. "Sweden Unzipped". New York Times 23 September 2007
  13. Wittins frae the tourist company Göteborg & Co, website www.goteborg.com
  14. Gamla Ullevi, Higabgruppen, website (Swedish) http://www.higab.se/fotbollsarenan/default.asp
  15. http://www.2010finamasters.org/ XIII FINA World Masters Championships 2010 website
  16. "Partner Cities of Lyon and Greater Lyon". Mairie de Lyon. 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Goteborg.se – Ceety o Gothenburg wabsteid (Inglis)
Murkrona.svg Gothenburg is ane o 133 places wi the historical ceety status in Swaden.