Kuressaare

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Kuressaare
Kuressaare Castle

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Coat of arms
Kuressaare is located in Estonia
Kuressaare
Kuressaare
Location o Kuressaare in Estonie
Coordinates: 58°15′N 22°29′E / 58.250°N 22.483°E / 58.250; 22.483
Kintra Flag of Estonia.svg Estonie
Coonty Saaremaa lipp.svg Saare Coonty
First appeared on map 1154
Government
 • Mayor Mati Mäetalu
Area
 • Total 14.95 km2 (5.77 sq mi)
Elevation 5 m (16 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Total 13,166
 • Density 880/km2 (2,300/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 93813
Area code(s) (+372) 045
Vehicle registration K
Website www.kuressaare.ee

Kuressaare (Finnish: Kuressaari‎, German: Arensburg) is a toun an a municipality on Saaremaa island in Estonie. It is the caipital o Saare Coonty an the wastmaist toun in Estonie. The population accordin tae the 2011 census is 13,166.[1]

The ceety is situatit on the coast o the Guwf o Riga an is servit bi Kuressaare Airport, Roomassaare Harbor an Kuressaare Yacht Harbor.

Etymologie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Its historic name Arensburg[2] (frae Middle Heich German a(a)r: eagle, raptor) renders the Laitin denotation arx aquilae for the ceety's castle. The fortress an the eagle, tetramorph seembol o Saunt John the Evangelist, are depictit on Kuressaare's coat o airms an aw.

The name wis replacit bi Kuressaare (probably meanin "Island o the Curonian fowk," wi the name o the fowk, the Kure, ultimately comin frae the Estonie kurg: crane) in 1918 efter Estonie haed declared its unthirldom frae Bolshevist Roushie. Unner Soviet rule the toun frae 1952 tae 1988 wis cried Kingissepa efter the Bolshevik Kuressaare-native Viktor Kingissepp executit in 1922 (no tae be ramfeeselt wi the Roushie toun Kingisepp, umwhile Jamburg).

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Kuressaare first appeared on maps around 1154. The island of Saaremaa (German, Swadish: Ösel‎) was conquered by the Livonian Brothers of the Sword under Volkwin of Naumburg in 1227, who merged with the Teutonic Knights shortly afterwards.[3] The first documentation about the castle (arx aquilae) has been found in Latin texts written in 1381 and 1422. The city around the fortress flourished after its building. It became the see of the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek established by Albert of Riga in 1228, part of the Terra Mariana.[4]

Town hall

Johann von Münchhausen, bishop syne 1542, haed turned Protestant. Wi the advance o the troops o Tsar Ivan IV o Roushie in the course o the Livonie War, he sauld his launds tae Keeng Frederick II o Denmark in 1559 an returned to Germany. Frederick sent his younger brither Prince Magnus tae Kuressaare whaur he wis electit as bishop in the follaein year. Frae him the ceety obtained its ceevic chairter, modeled efter that o Riga in 1563.[2] The bishopric wis feenally secularisit in 1572 an Kuressaare fell tae the Daens croun.

In 1645, it passed tae Swadish control bi the Treaty o Brömsebro efter the Dens defeat in the Torstenson War.[2] Queen Christina o Swaden grantit to her favourite Magnus Gabriel de la Gardie the title o a Coont o Arensburg, the German and Swadish name bi which Kuressaare wis kent at that time. The ceety wis burnt tae the grund bi Roushie troops in 1710 durin the Great Northren War an suffered hivily frae the plague.[5] Abandoned bi the Swadish it wis incorporatit intae the Govrenorate o Livonie o the Roushie Empire wi the 1721 Treaty o Nystad.

Durin the 19t century Kuressaare became a popular seaside resort on the Easter coast. Durin Warld War I (atween September an October 1917), German laund an naval forces occupee'd Saaremaa wi Operation Albion. Durin Warld War II, the Battle o Tehumardi teuk place. In October 1990, Kuressaare wis the first toun in Estonie tae regain its sel-govrenin status.

Landmarks an cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Kuressaare Castle in winter

The medieval episcopal Kuressaare Castle the day hooses the Saaremaa Regional Museum. The castle wis oreeginally built in firth atween 1338 an 1380, awtho ither sources claim a fortess wis first built in Kuressaare as early as 1260.[6][7] In 1968, airchitect Kalvi Aluve began studies on Kuressaare Castle.[8]

The toun haw wis oreeginally built in 1654, an restored, retainin clessicist an baroque featurs.[5] It wis last restored in the 1960s wi dolomite stairs at the front.[5] St Nicolaus Kirk wis built in 1790.[5]

Annual Saaremaa Opera Days (Saaremaa Ooperipäevad) are held in Kuressaare each simmer syne 1999. Ither festivals include Kuressaare Chamber Music Days (Kuressaare Kammermuusika Päevad), held syne 1995 an Kuressaare Martime Festival (Kuressaare Merepäevad), held syne 1998.

Kuressaare hosts the FC Kuressaare fitbaa club an aw.

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Kuressaare is twinned wi:[9]

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. REL 2011: EESTI ELANIKKOND KOONDUB SUUREMATE LINNADE ÜMBER
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Bes, Lennart; Frankot, Edda; Brand, Hanno (2007). Baltic Connections: Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany. BRILL. p. 178. ISBN 978-90-04-16431-4. Retrieved 4 June 2012. 
  3. Kjaergaard, Thorkild (1994). Castles around the Baltic Sea: the illustrated guide. Castle Museum. p. 64. ISBN 978-83-86206-03-2. Retrieved 4 June 2012. 
  4. Murray, Alan V. (2001). Crusade and conversion on the Baltic frontier, 1150–1500. Ashgate. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-7546-0325-2. Retrieved 4 June 2012. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Taylor, Neil (17 August 2010). Bradt Estonia. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 255. ISBN 978-1-84162-320-7. Retrieved 4 June 2012. 
  6. O'Connor, Kevin (2006). Culture And Customs of the Baltic States. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-313-33125-1. Retrieved 4 June 2012. 
  7. Jarvis, Howard; Ochser, Tim (2 May 2011). DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania. Dorling Kindersley. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-4053-6063-0. Retrieved 4 June 2012. 
  8. Lang, V.; Laneman, Margot (2006). Archaeological research in Estonia, 1865–2005. Tartu University Press. p. 185. Retrieved 4 June 2012. 
  9. "Kuressaare sõpruslinnad". Kuressaare linn. Retrieved 21 October 2010. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Travel guide tae Kuressaare frae Wikivoyage

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