Tallinn

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Tallinn

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Tallinn is located in Estonia
Tallinn
Tallinn
Coordinates: 59°26′14″N 24°44′43″E / 59.43722°N 24.74528°E / 59.43722; 24.74528
Kintra Banner o Estonie Estonie
Coonty Flag of et-Harju maakond.svg Harju Coonty
First appeared on map 1154
Toun richts 1248
Government
 • Mayor Edgar Savisaar (Centre Pairty)
Area
 • Total 159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi)
Population (1 April 2013[1])
 • Total 425,249
 • Density 2,700/km2 (6,900/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Website www.tallinn.ee

Tallinn is the caipital an the lairgest ceety in Estonie. It is situatit on the northren coast o the kintra, on the banks o the Gulf o Finland, 80 km (50 mi) sooth o Helsinki, wast o Saunt Petersburg.

Toponymie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Historical names[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1154 a toun cried Qlwn[2] or Qalaven (possible derivations of Kalevan or Kolyvan)[3][4] wis put on the warld map o the Almoravid bi cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi who described it as a sma toun like a lairge castle amang the touns o Astlanda. It haes been suggestit that the Quwri in Astlanda mey hae denotit the predecessor toun o the day's Tallinn.[5][6]

The earliest names o Tallinn include Kolyvan (Roushie: Колывань‎) kent frae East Slavic chronicles, the name possibly derivin frae the Estonian mythical hero Kalev.[7][8]

Up tae the 13t century the Scandinavians an Henry o Livonie in his chronicle cried the toun Lindanisa: Lyndanisse in Dens,[9][10][11] Lindanäs in Swadish, an aa mentioned as Ledenets in Auld East Slavic. Accordin tae some theories the name derived frae meethical Linda, the wife o Kalev an the mither o Kalevipoeg.[12] who in an Estonian legend carried rocks tae her husband's grave that formed the Toompea hill.[13]
It haes been an aa suggestit that in the context the meanin o linda in the airchaic Estonian leid, that is similar tae lidna in Votic, haed the same meanin as linna or linn later on meanin a castle or toun in Inglis. Accordin tae the suggestion nisa wad hae haed the same meanin as niemi (meanin peninsula in Inglis) in an auld Finnish form o the name Kesoniemi.[14]

Ither than Kesoniemi kent auncient historical names o Tallinn in Finnish include Rääveli. The Icelandic Njal's Saga mentions Tallinn an caws it Rafala, which is a variant o the name Raphael.

Efter the Dens conquest in 1219 the toun became kent in the German, Swadish an Dens leids as Reval (Laitin: Revalia). The name oreeginatit frae (Laitin) Revelia (Estonian) Revala or Rävala, the adjacent auncient name o the surroonding Estonian coonty.

Modren name[eedit | eedit soorce]

The auld toun

The oreegin o the name "Tallinn(a)" is certain tae be Estonian, although the oreeginal meanin o the name is debatit. It is usually thought to be derived from "Taani-linn(a)" (meaning "Dens-castle/toun"; Laitin: Castrum Danorum) efter the Danes built the castle in place o the Estonian stranghauld at Lindanisse. Housomeivver, it coud an aa hae come frae "tali-linna" ("winter-castle/toun"), or "talu-linna" ("hoose/farmstead-castle/toun"). The element -linna, like Germanic -burg an Slavic -grad / -gorod, oreeginally meant "fortress" but is uised as a suffix in the formation o toun names.

The previously uised offeecial German name Aboot this soond Reval  (Roushie: Ревель‎) wis replaced efter Estonie became independent in 1918–1920. At first baith forms Tallinna an Tallinn wur uised.[15] The United States Board on Geographic Names adoptit the form Tallinn atween Juin 1923 an Juin 1927.[16] The form Tallinna appearin in modren times in Estonian denotes the genitive case o the name, as in Tallinna Reisisadam (Port o Tallinn).

Ither variations o modren spellins include Tallinna in Finnish an Таллин in Roushie.

A form Tallin derivin frae the Romanization o Roushie spellin o the name Таллин [17] wis uised internaitionally an aw durin the era Estonie wis annexed bi the Soviet Union.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

UNESCO Warld Heritage Steid
Historic Centre (Auld Toun) o Tallinn
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
The historical Auld Toun
Kintra Estonia
Type Cultural
Criterie ii, iv
Reference 822bis
UNESCO region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1997 (21st Session)
The oreeginal Auld Thomas (1530)

The first traces o human dounset found in Tallinn's ceety centre bi aircheologists are aboot 5000 years auld. The comb ceramic pottery foond on the steid dates tae about 3000 BC an corded ware pottery c. 2500 BC.[18]

In 1050 the first fortress wis built on Tallinn Toompea.[3]

As an important port for trade atween Roushie an Scandinavie, it became a target for the expansion o the Teutonic Knichts an the Kinrick o Denmark durin the period o Northren Crusades in the beginnin o the 13t century when Christianity wis forcibly imposed on the local population. Dens rule o Tallinn an Northren Estonie stairtit in 1219.

In 1285 the ceety, then kent as Reval, became the northmaist member o the Hanseatic League – a mercantile an militar alliance o German-dominatit ceeties in Northren Europe. The Danes sauld Reval alang wi their ither laund possessions in northren Estonie tae the Teutonic Knichts in 1346. Medieval Reval enjoyed a strategic position at the crossroads o trade atween Wastren an Northren Europe an Roushie. The ceety, wi a population o 8,000, wis vera well fortifee'd wi ceety waws an 66 defence touers.

A wather vane, the figur o a auld warrior cried Auld Thomas, wis put on top o the spire o the Tallinn Toun Haw in 1530 that became the seembol for the ceety.

Wi the stairt o the Protestant Reformation the German influence became even stranger as the ceety wis convertit tae Lutheranism. In 1561 Reval poleetically became a dominion o Swaden.

Durin the Great Northren War, plague stricken Tallinn alang wi Swadish Estonie an Livonie capitulatit tae Imperial Roushie in 1710, but the local sel-govrenment institutions (Magistracy o Reval an Chivalry o Estonie) retained their cultural an economical autonomy athin Imperial Roushie as the Duchy o Estonie. The Magistracy o Reval wis abolisht in 1889. The 19t century brocht industrialization o the ceety an the port kept its importance. Durin the last decades o the century Roushification measurs became stranger.

The auldest fitbaa club in Estonie, Meteor Tallinn wis foondit in 1908 in the destrict Lasnamäe.

On 24 Februar 1918, the Independence Manifesto wis proclaimed in Reval, suin tae be Tallinn, follaeed bi Imperial German occupation an a war o unthirldom wi Roushie. On 2 Februar 1920, the Tartu Peace Treaty wis signed wi Soviet Roushie, whaurin Roushie acknawledgit the unthirldom o the Estonie Republic. Tallinn became the caipital o a unthirlt Estonie. Efter Warld War II stairtit, Estonie wis annexed bi the Soviet Union (USSR) in 1940, an later occupee'd bi Nazi Germany frae 1941 tae 1944. Efter the Nazi retreat in 1944, it wis again annexed bi the USSR. Efter annexation intae the Soviet Union, Tallinn became the caipital o the Estonie SSR.

Durin the 1980 Simmer Olympics, the sailin (then kent as yachtin) events wur held at Pirita, north-east o central Tallinn. Mony biggins, such as the "Olümpia" hotel, the new Main Post Office biggin, an the Regatta Center, wur built for the Olympics.

In August 1991 an independent democratic Estonian state was re-established and a period of quick development to a modern European capital ensued. Tallinn became the capital of a de facto independent country once again on 20 August 1991.

Tallinn haes historically consistit o three pairts:

  • The Toompea (Domberg) or "Cathedral Hill", which wis the seat o the central authority: first the Dens captains, then the komturs o the Teutonic Order, an Swadish an Roushie govrenors. It wis till 1877 a separate toun (Dom zu Reval), the residence o the aristocracy; it is the day the seat o the Estonie pairlament, govrenment an some embassies an residencies.
  • The Auld Toun, which is the auld Hanseatic toun, the "ceety o the ceetizens", wis no admeenistratively unitit wi Cathedral Hill till the late 19t century. It wis the centre o the medieval trade on which it grew prosperous.
  • The Estonie toun forms a crescent tae the sooth o the Auld Toun, whaur the Estonies came tae settle. It wis no till the mid-19t century that ethnic Estonies replacit the local Baltic Germans as the majority amang the residents o Tallinn.

The ceety o Tallinn haes niver been razit an pillagit; that wis the fate o Tartu, the varsity toun 200 km (124 mi) sooth, which wis pillagit in 1397 bi the Teutonic Order. Aroond 1524 Catholic kirks in mony touns in Estonie, including Tallinn, were pillaged as pairt o the Reformational fervor: this occurred throuoot Europe. Awtho extensively bombed bi Soviet air forces durin the later stages o Warld War II, hintle o the medieval Auld Toun still retains its chairm. The Tallinn Auld Toun (includin Toompea) became a UNESCO Warld Cultural Heritage steid in 1997.

At the end o the 15t century a new 159 m (521.65 ft) heich Gothic spire wis built for St. Olaf's Kirk. atween 1549 an 1625 it wis the tawest biggin in the warld. Efter several fires an follaein rebiggin, its owerall hicht is nou 123 m (403.54 ft).

Panorama o the central Toun Haw Square (Raekoja plats)
Auld Toun o Tallinn

Admeenistrative destricts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Destricts o Tallinn
Destrict Aurie Population
1. Haabersti 18.6 km² 42,839
2. Kesklinn (centre) 28.0 km² 52,820
3. Kristiine 9.4 km² 30,274
4. Lasnamäe 30.0 km² 116,490
5. Mustamäe 8.0 km² 64,425
6. Nõmme 28.0 km² 39,049
7. Pirita 18.7 km² 17,019
8. Põhja-Tallinn 17.3 km² 56,914

For local govrenment purposes, Tallinn is subdividit intae 8 admeenistrative destricts (Estonie: linnaosad, singular linnaosa). The district governments are ceety institutions that fulfill, in the territory o their destrict, the functions assigned tae thaiem biy Tallinn legislation an statutes.

Each destrict govrenment is managit bi an Elder (Estonie: linnaosavanem). He or she is appointit bi the Ceety Govrenment on the nomination o the Mayor an efter haein heard the opinion o the Admeenistrative Cooncils. The function o the Admeenistrative Cooncils is tae recommend, tae the Ceety Govrenment an Commissions o the Ceety Cooncil, hou the destricts shoud be admeenistered.

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns – sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tallinn participates in internaitional toun twinnin schemes tae foster guid internaitional relations. Pairtners include:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named registered_population
  2. Fasman, The Geographer's Library, pp.17
  3. 3.0 3.1 Ertl, Alan (2008). Toward an Understanding of Europe. Universal-Publishers. p. 381. ISBN 978-1-59942-983-0. 
  4. Birnbaum, Stephen (1992). Birnbaum's Eastern Europe. Harper Perennial. ISBN 9780062780195. 
  5. Fasman, Jon (2006). The Geographer's Library. Penguin. p. 17. ISBN 9780143036623. 
  6. "A glance at the history and geology of Tallinn" by Jaak Nõlvak. In Wogogob 2004: Conference Materials
  7. Terras, Victor (1990). Handbook of Russian Literature. Yale University Press. p. 68. ISBN 9780300048681. 
  8. The Esthonian Review. University of California. 
  9. (Dens) In 1219 Valdemar II o Denmark, leadin the Dens Fleet in connection wi the Livonian Crusade, landit in an Estonian toun o Lindanisse
  10. SALMONSENS KONVERSATIONS LEKSIKON
  11. (German) Reval's ältester Estnischer Name Lindanisse, Verhandlungen der gelehrten estnischen Gesellschaft zu Dorpat. Band 3, Heft 1. Dorpat 1854, p. 46–47
  12. Wieczynski, Joseph (1976). The Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet History. Academic International Press. p. 230. ISBN 9780875690643. 
  13. Ransome, Arthur (1923). "Racundra's" First Cruise. B.W. Huebsc. 
  14. VIRKKUNEN, A. H. (1907). ITÄMEREN SUOMALAISET SAKSALAISEN VALLOITUKSEN AIKANA (in Finnish). Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistys. p. 91. 
  15. Singer, Nat A.; Steve Roman (2008). Tallinn In Your Pocket. In Your Pocket. p. 11. ISBN 0014062690. 
  16. Decisions of the United States Geographic Board. The Board. 
  17. Young, Jekaterina (1990). Russian at Your Fingertips. Routledge. p. 100. ISBN 0415029309. 
  18. Alas, Askur. "The mystery of Tallinn's Central Square" (in Estonian). EE. Retrieved 29 October 2008. 
  19. "Twin Towns - Graz Online - English Version". www.graz.at. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  20. "Groningen - Partner Cities". © 2008 Gemeente Groningen, Kreupelstraat 1,9712 HW Groningen. Retrieved 2008-12-08. 
  21. "Malmö stads vänortssamarbete" (in Swedish). © 2004–2009 Malmö stad, 205 80 Malmö, Organisationsnummer: 212000-1124. Retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  22. "Twin cities of Riga". Riga City Council. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  23. "Vilniuse sõpruslinnad" (in Estonian). © 2002–2009 Tallinn. Retrieved 2009-09-12.