|1st Row: Martin Luther, Otto von Bismarck, Ludwig van Beethoven, Immanuel Kant, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe|
|German Diaspora ca. 150 million
|Regions wi signeeficant populations|
|Germany 75 million|
Roman Catholic, Protestant (chiefly Lutheran)
|Sib ethnic groups|
The Germans (German: Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native tae Central Europe. The Inglis/Scots term Germans haes referred tae the German-speakin population o the Holy Roman Empire syne the Late Middle Ages. Legally, Germans are citizens o the Federal Republic o Germany.
O approximately 100 million native speakers o German in the warld, aboot 66–75 million consider thairsels Germans. There are an additional 80 million fowk o German ancestry mainly in the Unitit States, Brazil, Canadae, Argentinae, Fraunce, Roushie, Chile, Poland, Australie an Romanie (who maist likely are no native speakers o German). Thus, the total number o Germans worldwide lees atween 66 an 160 million, dependin on the criteria appleed (native speakers, single-ancestry ethnic Germans, pairtial German ancestry, etc.).
The day, fowks frae kintras wi a German-speakin majority or significant German-speakin population groups ither than Germany, such as Austrick, Swisserland, Liechtenstein an Luxembourg, hae developit their awn naitional identity an uisually dae no refer tae thairsels as "Germans" in a modren context.
Table o contents
- Main airticle: German leid
The native leid o Germans is German, a Wast Germanic leid, relatit tae an classifeed alangside Inglis an Dutch, an sharin mony similarities wi the North Germanic or Scandinavie leids. Spoken bi approximately 100 million native speakers, German is ane o the warld's major leids an the maist widely spoken first leid in the European Union.
- Main airticle: German dialects
- Heich German
- Upper German
- Bavaries (ca. 10 million) form the Austro-Bavarie linguistic group, thegither wi those Austrians who speak German an dae no live in Vorarlberg an the wastren Tyrol destrict o Reutte. Swabians (ca. 10 million) form the Alemannic group, thegither wi the Alemannic Swiss, Liechtensteiners, Alsatians an Vorarlbergians.
- Central German dialect group (ca. 45 million)
- Yiddish, a Heich German leid o Ashkenazi Jewish oreegin, spoken throughoot the warld. It developit as a fusion o German dialects wi Ebreu, Slavic leids an traces o Romance leids.
- Upper German
- Law German (ca. 3–10 million), forms a dialectal unity wi Dutch Law Saxon
Global distribution o native speakers o the German leid:
|Kintra||German speakin population (ootside Europe)|
|Canadae||450,000 – 620,000|
|Sooth Africae||75,000 (German expatriate citizens)|
|Namibie||30,000 (German expatriate citizens)|
Ethnic Germans form an important minority group in several kintras in central an eastren Europe—(Poland, Hungary, Romanie, Roushie) as well as in Namibie (German Namibie), Brazil (German Brazilian) (approx. 3% o the population), Argentinae (German Argentine) (1,5% ~ 7,5% of the population) an Chile (German-Chilean) (approx. 1% o the population).
Some groups mey be classifeed as Ethnic Germans despite nae langer haein German as their mither tongue or belangin tae a destinct German cultur. Till the 1990s, twa million Ethnic Germans livit throughoot the umwhile Soviet Union, pairticularly in Roushie an Kazakhstan.
In the Unitit States 1990 census, 57 million fowk wur fully or pairtly o German ancestry, formin the lairgest single ethnic group in the kintra. States wi the heichest percentage o Americans o German descent are in the northren Midwast (especially Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, Sooth Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan) an the Mid-Atlantic state, Pennsylvania. But Germanic immigrant enclaves existit in mony ither states (e.g., the German Texans an the Denver, Colorado aurie) an tae a lesser extent, the Paceefic Northwast (i.e. Idaho, Montana, Oregon an Washington state).
Notable Ethnic German minorities exist in ither Anglosphere kintras such as Canadae (approx. 10% o the population) an Australie (approx. 4% o the population) an aw. As in the Unitit States, maist fowk o German descent in Canadae an Australie hae amaist completely assimilatit, culturally an linguistically, intae the Inglis-speakin mainstream.
Distribution o German citizens an fowk claimin German ancestry:
- Germans and foreigners with an immigrant background. 156 is the estimate which counts all people claiming ethnic German ancestry in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, and elsewhere.
- 66.42 million is the number of Germans without immigrant background, 75 million is the number of German citizens Germans and foreigners with an immigrant background
- "Deutsche Welle: 2005 German Census figures". Dw-world.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "CIA World Factbook – Germany: People". Cia.gov. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- alangside the slichtly earlier term Almayns; John o Trevisa's 1387 translation o Ranulf Higdon's Polychronicon haes: Þe empere passede from þe Grees to þe Frenschemen and to þe Germans, þat beeþ Almayns. Durin the 15t an 16t centuries, Dutch wis the adjective uised in the sense "pertainin tae Germans". Uise o German as an adjective dates tae ca. 1550. The adjective Dutch narraeed its sense tae "o the Netherlands" durin the 17t century.
- (Spainyie) Hablantes del alemán en el mundo
- "Most Widely Spoken Languages". .ignatius.edu. 28 May 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "Ethnologue: East Middle German". Retrieved 6 March 2011.
- Introduction to Old Yiddish literature, p. 72, Baumgarten and Frakes, Oxford University Press, 2005
- "Development of Yiddish over the ages", www.jewishgen.org
- Handwörterbuch des politischen Systems der Bundesrepublik (in German). Source lists "German expatriate citizens" only for Namibia and South Africa!
- "Statistics Canada 2006". 2.statcan.ca. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
- "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 188. Retrieved 12 June 2012.
- Bolivian Reforms Raise Anxiety on Mennonite Frontier, New York Times
- Los Menonitas en Bolivia CNN México/CNN en Español
- "The Mennonite Old Colony Vision: Under siege in Mexico and the Canadian Connection" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-05-30.
- "A Imigração Alemã| Brasil | Deutsche Welle | 14.01.2010". Passeiweb.com. 6 January 1990. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "Obsevatorio de Colectividades – Comunidad Alemana". Buenosaires.gob.ar. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- German-Argentine Descendants of Germans in Argentina
- Oliver Zoellner. "Oliver Zoellner | Generating Samples of Ethnic Minorities in Chile". Research-worldwide.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- 49.2 million German Americans as o 2005 accordin tae the "US demographic census". Retrieved 2 August 2007.; see an aw Leids in the Unitit States#German.
- "A Imigração Alemã no Brasil | Brasil | Deutsche Welle | 25.07.2004". Passeiweb.com. 6 January 1990. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- 2001 Canadian Census gives 2,742,765 total respondents stating their ethnic origin as partly German, with 705,600 stating "single-ancestry", see List of Canadians by ethnicity.
- "Germans in South Africa". Webcitation.org. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- Professor JA Heese in his book Die Herkoms van die Afrikaner (The Origins of Afrikaners) claims the modern Afrikaners (who total around 3.5 million) have 34.4% German heritage. How 'Pure' was the Average Afrikaner?
- ~3,000,000 Including Volga Germans, and other German ancestries
- 597,212 in Russia as of 2002, 0.4 of Russian population
- Vladimir Geroimenko. "France". Ling.gu.se. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "Alsatians". Everyculture.com. 16 January 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- The PDF (424 KB) reports 742,212 people of German ancestry in the 2001 Census. German is spoken by ca. 135,000 , about 105,000 of them Germany-born, see Demographics of Australia
- South Tyrol in figures. Provincial Statistics Institute.
- 378,947 (2010, 2.3% o Dutch population). cbs.nl
- German born anerlie; Born Abroad: An Immigration map of Britain: Germany, 2001
- 2008, 0.15% o UK population. statistics.gov.uk
- "INE(2006)". INE. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- 265,944 (2009, 3.3% o Swiss population) Wohnbevölkerung nach detaillierter Staatsangehörigkeit, Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 163 923 resident aliens (nationals or citizens) in 2004 (2.2% of total population), compared to 112 348 as of 2000. 2005 report of the Swiss Federal Office of Statistics. 4.6 million including Alemannic Swiss: CIA World Fact Book, identifies the 65% (4.9 million) Swiss German speakers as "ethnic Germans".
- 2002 census
- (Spainyie) / Inmigración Alemana al Perú
- census 2001[deid airtin]
- 2008, 1.5% o Austrian population. Wer sind die Deutschen in Österreich?
- "Money overcomes ideology as Israelis hunt down German passports| Yediot Ahronot | 31.05.2011". Ynetnews.com. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "German minority" (in (German)). Auswaertiges-amt.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "There are 6,000 Germans living in Uruguay today and 40,000 descendants of Germans" (in (German)). Auswaertiges-amt.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "Ethnic German Minorities in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia". Radio.cz. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- Romero, Simon (21 December 2006). "Land reform worries Bolivia's Mennonites". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- (Dutch) "Bevolking per nationaliteit, geslacht, leeftijdsgroepen op 1 January 2008". Statistics Belgium. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
- Norway[deid airtin]
- Joshua Project. "Ethnic groups around the world". joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "Amid Namibia's White Opulence, Majority Rule Isn't So Scary Now". New York Times. 26 December 1988. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "Dominican Republic" (in (German)). Auswaertiges-amt.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- in the German-Dens border region; see Bund Deutscher Nordschleswiger
- "Greeks Census 2001" (PDF). Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "CSO: Statistics: Persons usually resident and present in the State on Census Night, classifieid by place of birth and age group". Cso.ie. 13 May 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- "Slovakia" (in (German)). Auswaertiges-amt.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- 2000 census
- Joshua Project. "joshuaproject.net". joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
- Out Of Many Cultures The People Who Came The Arrival Of The GERMANS "The Arrival Of The GERMANS". Jamaica Gleaner. 2 March 2004. Retrieved 31 May 2012.