Germans

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Germans
Deutsche
Germans collage.jpg
1st Row: Martin Luther, Otto von Bismarck, Ludwig van Beethoven, Immanuel Kant, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

2nt Row: Johannes Gutenberg, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Johann Sebastian Bach, Richard Wagner, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

3rd Row: Friedrich Schiller, Karl Marx, Brothers Grimm, Konrad Adenauer, Albrecht Dürer

4t Row: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Karl Benz, Konrad Zuse, Marlene Dietrich, Max Planck

5t Row: Claudia Schiffer, Albert Einstein, Johannes Kepler, Friedrich Nietzsche, Heidi Klum

6t Row: Willy Brandt, Jürgen Klinsmann, Wernher von Braun, Catherine the Great, Carl Friedrich Gauss

Total population
German Diaspora ca. 150 million[1]
Regions wi signeeficant populations
Banner o Germany Germany        75 million[2][3][4]
see below; see an aw Ethnic Germans.
Leids

German: Heich German (Upper German, Central German), Law German (see German dialects)

Releegion

Roman Catholic, Protestant (chiefly Lutheran)

Sib ethnic groups

Austrians, Danes, Dutch, Inglis, Flemish, French, Icelanders, Norse fowk,[5] Romansch, Swades,[5]an ither Germanic fowks

The Germans (German: Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native tae Central Europe. The Inglis/Scots term Germans haes referred tae the German-speakin population o the Holy Roman Empire syne the Late Middle Ages.[6] Legally, Germans are citizens o the Federal Republic o Germany.

O approximately 100 million native speakers o German in the warld, aboot 66–75 million consider thairsels Germans. There are an additional 80 million fowk o German ancestry mainly in the Unitit States, Brazil, Canadae, Argentinae, Fraunce, Roushie, Chile, Poland, Australie an Romanie (who maist likely are no native speakers o German).[7] Thus, the total number o Germans worldwide lees atween 66 an 160 million, dependin on the criteria appleed (native speakers, single-ancestry ethnic Germans, pairtial German ancestry, etc.).

The day, fowks frae kintras wi a German-speakin majority or significant German-speakin population groups ither than Germany, such as Austrick, Swisserland, Liechtenstein an Luxembourg, hae developit their awn naitional identity an uisually dae no refer tae thairsels as "Germans" in a modren context.

Leid[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: German leid

The native leid o Germans is German, a Wast Germanic leid, relatit tae an classifeed alangside Inglis an Dutch, an sharin mony similarities wi the North Germanic or Scandinavie leids. Spoken bi approximately 100 million native speakers,[8] German is ane o the warld's major leids an the maist widely spoken first leid in the European Union.

Dialects[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main airticle: German dialects
Wast Germanic eids

██ Dutch (Law Franconie, Wast Germanic)

██ Law German (Wast Germanic)

██ Central German (Heich German, Wast Germanic)

██ Upper German (Heich German, Wast Germanic)

██ Inglis (Anglo-Frisie, Wast Germanic)

██ Frisie (Anglo-Frisie, Wast Germanic)

North Germanic languages

██ East Scandinavie

██ Wast Scandinavie

██ Line dividin the North an Wast Germanic leids

Native speakers[eedit | eedit soorce]

Global distribution o native speakers o the German leid:

Kintra German speakin population (ootside Europe)
USA 5,000,000[12]
Brazil 3,000,000[12]
Roushie 2,000,000[12]
Poland 800,000[12]
Argentinae 500,000[12]
Canadae 450,000[12] – 620,000[13]
Bolivie 300,000[14][15][16]
Italy 250,000[12]
Hungary 220,000[12]
Paraguay 186,000[14]
Australie 110,000
Sooth Africae 75,000 (German expatriate citizens)[12]
Belgium 66,000[12]
Mexico 40,000[17]
Chile 40,000[12]
Namibie 30,000 (German expatriate citizens)[12]
Denmark 20,000[12]
Romanie 15,000[12]
Venezuela 10,000[12]

Geographic distribution[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ethnic Germans form an important minority group in several kintras in central an eastren Europe—(Poland, Hungary, Romanie, Roushie) as well as in Namibie (German Namibie), Brazil (German Brazilian) (approx. 3% o the population),[18] Argentinae (German Argentine) (1,5%[19] ~ 7,5% of the population)[20] an Chile (German-Chilean) (approx. 1% o the population).[21]

Some groups mey be classifeed as Ethnic Germans despite nae langer haein German as their mither tongue or belangin tae a destinct German cultur. Till the 1990s, twa million Ethnic Germans livit throughoot the umwhile Soviet Union, pairticularly in Roushie an Kazakhstan.

In the Unitit States 1990 census, 57 million fowk wur fully or pairtly o German ancestry, formin the lairgest single ethnic group in the kintra. States wi the heichest percentage o Americans o German descent are in the northren Midwast (especially Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, Sooth Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan) an the Mid-Atlantic state, Pennsylvania. But Germanic immigrant enclaves existit in mony ither states (e.g., the German Texans an the Denver, Colorado aurie) an tae a lesser extent, the Paceefic Northwast (i.e. Idaho, Montana, Oregon an Washington state).

Notable Ethnic German minorities exist in ither Anglosphere kintras such as Canadae (approx. 10% o the population) an Australie (approx. 4% o the population) an aw. As in the Unitit States, maist fowk o German descent in Canadae an Australie hae amaist completely assimilatit, culturally an linguistically, intae the Inglis-speakin mainstream.

Distribution o German citizens an fowk claimin German ancestry:

Kintra German ancestry German citizens Comments
Banner o Germany Germany 66,420,000 75,000,000[2] see Demographics o Germany
Banner o Unitit States Unitit States 50,000,000[22] see German American
Banner o Brazil Brazil 5,000,000[23] see German Brazilian
Banner o Canadae Canadae 3,200,000[24] see Canadians o German ethnicity
Banner o Sooth Africae Sooth Africae 1,200,000[25][26] see Afrikaner. Although studies show that atween 30–40% o Afrikaners hae German ancestry, due tae intermarriage this figur is likely tae be hintle heicher.
Banner o Argentinae Argentinae 600,000[27] see German Argentine
The Banner o Commonwalth o Independent States CIS (mainly Banner o Roushie Roushie an Banner o Kazakhstan Kazakhstan) 1,000,000 600,000[28] see Germans in Roushie, Germans o Kazakhstan, Volga Germans, Caucasus Germans
Banner o Fraunce Fraunce 1,000,000[29][30] predominant ethnic group o Alsace an Moselle; 970,000 wi German dialects as mither tongue
Banner o Australie Australie 812,000[31] incl. 106,524 German-born. See German Australie
Banner o Italy Italy (in Sooth Tyrol) 500,000[32][33]
Banner o Netherlands Netherlands 179,000[34]
Banner o Unitit Kinrick Unitit Kinrick 262,000[35] (This figure includes children born to British Military personnel serving on British Military bases in Germany) 92,000[36] see German migration tae the Unitit Kinrick
Banner o Spain Spain 255,000[37] German immigrants
Banner o Swisserland Swisserland 266,000[38] see German immigration tae Swisserland
Banner o Poland Poland 153,000[39] mainly in Opole Voivodeship, see German minority in Poland.
Banner o Chile Chile 150,000 ~ 200,000[21] see German Chilean
Banner o Peru Peru 180,000[40] see German Peruvian
Banner o Hungary Hungary 120,344[41] see Germans o Hungary
Banner o Austrick Austrick 124,710[42]
Banner o Israel Israel 100,000[43]
Banner o Venezuela Venezuela 70,000 see German Venezuelan
Banner o Romanie Romanie 60,000[44] see Germans o Romanie
Banner o Uruguay Uruguay 46,000 6,000[45]
Banner o Czech Republic Czech Republic 40,000[46] see Germans in the Czech Republic
Banner o Bolivie Bolivie 40,000[47] German speakin Mennonites. See Ethnic Germans in Bolivie
Banner o Belgium Belgium 38,366[48] excludes German-speakin ethnic Belgians
Banner o Norawa Norawa 37,000[49]
Banner o Ecuador Ecuador 33,000[50]
Banner o Namibie Namibie 30,000[51] German Namibie
Banner o Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 25,000[52]
Banner o Denmark Denmark 15,000–20,000[53]
Banner o Greece Greece 15,498[54]
Banner o Republic o Ireland Ireland 11,797[55]
Banner o Slovakie Slovakie 5000–10,000[56]
Banner o Philippines Philippines 6,400[57] see German settlement in the Philippines
Banner o Serbie Serbie 3,900 see Germans o Serbie
Banner o Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 2,700[58]
Banner o Tajikistan Tajikistan 2,700[58]
Banner o Jamaica Jamaica 160[59] Germans in Jamaica

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Germans and foreigners with an immigrant background. 156 is the estimate which counts all people claiming ethnic German ancestry in the U.S., Brazil, Argentina, and elsewhere.
  2. 2.0 2.1 66.42 million is the number of Germans without immigrant background, 75 million is the number of German citizens Germans and foreigners with an immigrant background
  3. "Deutsche Welle: 2005 German Census figures". Dw-world.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  4. "CIA World Factbook – Germany: People". Cia.gov. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/EJHG_2002_v10_521-529.pdf
  6. alangside the slichtly earlier term Almayns; John o Trevisa's 1387 translation o Ranulf Higdon's Polychronicon haes: Þe empere passede from þe Grees to þe Frenschemen and to þe Germans, þat beeþ Almayns. Durin the 15t an 16t centuries, Dutch wis the adjective uised in the sense "pertainin tae Germans". Uise o German as an adjective dates tae ca. 1550. The adjective Dutch narraeed its sense tae "o the Netherlands" durin the 17t century.
  7. (Spainyie) Hablantes del alemán en el mundo
  8. "Most Widely Spoken Languages". .ignatius.edu. 28 May 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  9. "Ethnologue: East Middle German". Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  10. Introduction to Old Yiddish literature, p. 72, Baumgarten and Frakes, Oxford University Press, 2005
  11. "Development of Yiddish over the ages", www.jewishgen.org
  12. 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 Handwörterbuch des politischen Systems der Bundesrepublik (in German). Source lists "German expatriate citizens" only for Namibia and South Africa!
  13. "Statistics Canada 2006". 2.statcan.ca. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 188. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  15. Bolivian Reforms Raise Anxiety on Mennonite Frontier, New York Times
  16. Los Menonitas en Bolivia CNN México/CNN en Español
  17. "The Mennonite Old Colony Vision: Under siege in Mexico and the Canadian Connection" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-05-30. 
  18. "A Imigração Alemã| Brasil | Deutsche Welle | 14.01.2010". Passeiweb.com. 6 January 1990. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  19. "Obsevatorio de Colectividades – Comunidad Alemana". Buenosaires.gob.ar. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  20. German-Argentine Descendants of Germans in Argentina
  21. 21.0 21.1 Oliver Zoellner. "Oliver Zoellner | Generating Samples of Ethnic Minorities in Chile". Research-worldwide.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  22. 49.2 million German Americans as o 2005 accordin tae the "US demographic census". Retrieved 2 August 2007.  |coauthors= requires |author= (help); see an aw Leids in the Unitit States#German.
  23. "A Imigração Alemã no Brasil | Brasil | Deutsche Welle | 25.07.2004". Passeiweb.com. 6 January 1990. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  24. 2001 Canadian Census gives 2,742,765 total respondents stating their ethnic origin as partly German, with 705,600 stating "single-ancestry", see List of Canadians by ethnicity.
  25. "Germans in South Africa". Webcitation.org. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  26. Professor JA Heese in his book Die Herkoms van die Afrikaner (The Origins of Afrikaners) claims the modern Afrikaners (who total around 3.5 million) have 34.4% German heritage. How 'Pure' was the Average Afrikaner?
  27. [1]~3,000,000 Including Volga Germans, and other German ancestries
  28. 597,212 in Russia as of 2002, 0.4 of Russian population
  29. Vladimir Geroimenko. "France". Ling.gu.se. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  30. "Alsatians". Everyculture.com. 16 January 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  31. The Australian Bureau of Statistics PDF (424 KB) reports 742,212 people of German ancestry in the 2001 Census. German is spoken by ca. 135,000 [2], about 105,000 of them Germany-born, see Demographics of Australia
  32. http://demo.istat.it/str2006/query.php?lingua=ita&Rip=S0&paese=A11&submit=Tavola
  33. South Tyrol in figures. Provincial Statistics Institute.
  34. 378,947 (2010, 2.3% o Dutch population). cbs.nl
  35. German born anerlie; Born Abroad: An Immigration map of Britain: Germany, 2001
  36. 2008, 0.15% o UK population. statistics.gov.uk
  37. "INE(2006)". INE. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  38. 265,944 (2009, 3.3% o Swiss population) Wohnbevölkerung nach detaillierter Staatsangehörigkeit, Swiss Federal Statistical Office. 163 923 resident aliens (nationals or citizens) in 2004 (2.2% of total population), compared to 112 348 as of 2000. 2005 report of the Swiss Federal Office of Statistics. 4.6 million including Alemannic Swiss: CIA World Fact Book, identifies the 65% (4.9 million) Swiss German speakers as "ethnic Germans".
  39. 2002 census
  40. (Spainyie) / Inmigración Alemana al Perú
  41. census 2001[deid airtin]
  42. 2008, 1.5% o Austrian population. Wer sind die Deutschen in Österreich?
  43. "Money overcomes ideology as Israelis hunt down German passports| Yediot Ahronot | 31.05.2011". Ynetnews.com. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  44. "German minority" (in (German)). Auswaertiges-amt.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  45. "There are 6,000 Germans living in Uruguay today and 40,000 descendants of Germans" (in (German)). Auswaertiges-amt.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  46. "Ethnic German Minorities in the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia". Radio.cz. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  47. Romero, Simon (21 December 2006). "Land reform worries Bolivia's Mennonites". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  48. (Dutch) "Bevolking per nationaliteit, geslacht, leeftijdsgroepen op 1 January 2008". Statistics Belgium. Retrieved 30 May 2010. 
  49. Norway[deid airtin]
  50. Joshua Project. "Ethnic groups around the world". joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  51. "Amid Namibia's White Opulence, Majority Rule Isn't So Scary Now". New York Times. 26 December 1988. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  52. "Dominican Republic" (in (German)). Auswaertiges-amt.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  53. in the German-Dens border region; see Bund Deutscher Nordschleswiger
  54. "Greeks Census 2001" (PDF). Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  55. "CSO: Statistics: Persons usually resident and present in the State on Census Night, classifieid by place of birth and age group". Cso.ie. 13 May 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  56. "Slovakia" (in (German)). Auswaertiges-amt.de. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  57. 2000 census
  58. 58.0 58.1 Joshua Project. "joshuaproject.net". joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  59. Out Of Many Cultures The People Who Came The Arrival Of The GERMANS "The Arrival Of The GERMANS". Jamaica Gleaner. 2 March 2004. Retrieved 31 May 2012. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]