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|Suez Creesis |
The Tripartite Aggression
The Sinai War
|Pairt o the Cauld War an the Arab–Israeli conflict|
Damaged Egyptian equipment
|Commanders an leaders|
|Casualties an losses|
The Suez Creesis, forby referred tae as the Tripartite Aggression, Suez War, or Seicont Arab-Israeli War (Arabic: أزمة السويس / العدوان الثلاثي Azmat al-Suways / al-ʻUdwān al-Thulāthī , "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; French: Crise du canal de Suez; Ebreu: מבצע קדש Mivtza' Kadesh "Operation Kadesh," or מלחמת סיני Milẖemet Sinai, "Sinai War"), wis a diplomatic an militar confrontation in late 1956 atween Egyp on ane side, an Breetain, Fraunce an Israel on the ither, wi the Unitit States, the Soviet Union, an the Unitit Nations playin major roles in forcin Breetain, Fraunce an Israel tae widraw.
The attack followed the Preses o Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser's decision o 26 Julie 1956 tae naitionalize the Suez Canal, efter the widrawal o an offer bi Breetain an the Unitit States tae fund the buildin o the Aswan Dam, which wis in response tae Egyp's new ties wi the Soviet Union an recognizin the Fowkrepublic o Cheenae durin the heicht o tensions atween Cheenae an Taiwan. The aims o the attack wur primarily tae regain Wastren control o the canal an tae remove Nasser frae pouer, an the creesis heichlichtit the danger that Arab naitionalism posed tae Wastren access tae Middle East ile.
Less nor a day efter Israel invadit Egyp, Breetain an Fraunce issued a jynt ultimatum tae Egyp an Israel, an then began tae bomb Cairo. Despite the denials o the Israeli, Breetish, an French govrenments, allegations began tae emerge that the invasion o Egyp haed been planned aforehaund bi the three pouers. Anglo-French forces widrew afore the end o the year, but Israeli forces remained til Mairch 1957, prolongin the creesis. In Aprile, the canal wis fully reopened tae shippin, but ither repercussions followed.
The three allies, especially Israel, wur mainly successful in attainin their immediate militar objectives, but pressur frae the Unitit States an the USSR at the Unitit Naitions an elsewhere forced them tae widraw. As a result o the ootside pressur Breetain an Fraunce failed in their poleetical an strategic aims o controllin the canal an removin Nasser frae pouer. Israel fulfilled some o its objectives, such as attainin freedom o navigation through the Straits o Tiran. As a result o the conflict, the UNEF would police the Egyptian–Israeli border tae prevent baith sides frae recommencin hostilities.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- ↑ Kunz, Diane B. The Economic Diplomacy of the Suez Crisis. p. 187. ISBN 0-8078-1967-0.
- ↑ Brown, Derek (14 Mairch 2001). "1956: Suez and the end of empire". The Guardian. London.
- ↑ Reynolds, Paul (24 Julie 2006). "Suez: End of empire". BBC News.
- ↑ History's worst decisions and the people who made them, pp. 167–172
- ↑ Casualties in Arab–Israeli Wars, Jewish Virtual Library
- ↑ Israeli Casualties in Battle, Jewish Virtual Library
- ↑ Dupuy, R. Ernest; Dupuy, Trevor N. (1994). The Collins Encyclopedia of Military History. HarperCollins. p. 1343.
- ↑ a b Varble, Derek The Suez Crisis 1956, Osprey: London 2003, p. 90
- ↑ "Archived copy". Archived frae the original on 23 Juin 2013. Retrieved 6 Mey 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- ↑ Schiff, A History of the Israeli Army, 1870–1974, p. 70, Straight Arrow Books (1974)
- ↑ http://books.google.com.eg/books?hl=ar&id=SaFtAAAAMAAJ&q=5000#search_anchor
- ↑ Israel – The Suez War of 1956: U.S. newsreel footage. Event occurs at 0:30–0:40.
- ↑ The Suez Creesis is kent as the Suez War or 1956 War an aw, commonly kent in the Arab warld as the Tripartite aggression; ither names include the Sinai war, Suez–Sinai war, 1956 Arab–Israeli War, the Seicont Arab–Israeli War, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Kadesh Operation, an Operation Musketeer
- ↑ "Port Said Remembers 'Tripartite Aggression' of 1956'". Daily News Egypt. Archived frae the original on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 6 Mey 2013.
- ↑ Roger Owen "Suez Crisis" The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World, Second edition. Joel Krieger, ed. Oxford University Press Inc. 2001.
- ↑ "Suez crisis" The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Ed. Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan. Oxford University Press, 2003.
- ↑ Copeland, Miles (1989). The game player : the confessions of the CIA's original political operative. London: Aurum Press. pp. 170–171. ISBN 0-948149-87-6. OCLC 21874352.
- ↑ Painter 2012, p. 32.
- ↑ How Britain France and Israel Got Together Archived 2013-05-17 at the Wayback Machine, Time, 12 November 1956. "Within 24 hours after Israel invaded Egypt, Britain, and France joined in an ultimatum to Egypt and Israel—and then began to bomb Cairo. Israel's Foreign Ministry talked of "the unexpected intervention of Britain and France." Britain's Foreign Secretary Selwyn Lloyd protested: "There was no prior agreement between us." Despite their words, there was plenty of evidence to show that the two attacks were planned in collusion ("orchestration" was the French word for it). In this conspiracy, France was the instigator, Britain a belated partner, and Israel the willing trigger."
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