Anthony Eden

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The Earl o Avon

KG, MC, PC
Anthony Eden.jpg
Prime Meenister o the Unitit Kinrick
In office
6 Aprile 1955 – 10 Januar 1957
MonarchElizabeth II
Precedit biSir Winston Churchill
Succeedit biHarold Macmillan
Depute Prime Meenister o the Unitit Kinrick
In office
26 October 1951 – 6 Aprile 1955
Prime MeenisterSir Winston Churchill
Precedit biHerbert Morrison
Succeedit biRab Butler[a]
Leader o the Conservative Pairty
In office
6 Aprile 1955 – 10 Januar 1957
Precedit biSir Winston Churchill
Succeedit biHarold Macmillan
Secretar o State for Foreign Affairs
In office
28 October 1951 – 7 April 1955
Prime MeenisterSir Winston Churchill
Precedit biHerbert Morrison
Succeedit biHarold Macmillan
In office
22 December 1940 – 26 Julie 1945
Prime MeenisterWinston Churchill
Precedit biThe Viscount Halifax
Succeedit biErnest Bevin
In office
22 December 1935 – 20 Februar 1938
Prime Meenister
Precedit biSir Samuel Hoare, Bt
Succeedit biThe Viscoont Halifax
Leader o the Hoose o Commons
In office
22 Februar 1942 – 26 Julie 1945
Prime MeenisterWinston Churchill
Precedit biSir Stafford Cripps
Succeedit biHerbert Morrison
Secretar o State for War
In office
11 Mey 1940 – 22 December 1940
Prime MeenisterWinston Churchill
Precedit biOliver Stanley
Succeedit biDavid Margesson
Secretar o State for Dominion Affairs
In office
3 September 1939 – 14 Mey 1940
Prime Meenister
Neville Chamberlain
Winston Churchill
Precedit biSir Thomas Inskip
Succeedit biThe Viscount Caldecote
Laird Privy Seal
In office
Juin 1934 – 7 Juin 1935
Prime MeenisterRamsay MacDonald
Precedit biStanley Baldwin
Succeedit biThe Marquess o Londonderry
Member o Pairlament
for Warwick an Leamington
In office
6 December 1923 – 10 Januar 1957
Precedit biErnest Pollock
Succeedit biJohn Hobson
Personal details
BornRobert Anthony Eden
12 Juin 1897(1897-06-12)
Windlestone Haw,
Coonty Durham, Ingland
Dee'd14 Januar 1977(1977-01-14) (aged 79)
Alvediston, Salisbury, Wiltshire, Ingland
Restin placeKirkyard o St Mary's, Alvediston
NaitionalityBreetish
Poleetical pairtyConservative
Spoose(s)
Bairns
Alma materChrist Kirk, Oxford
ProfessionMember o Pairlament
ReligionAnglican
Militar service
Allegiance Unitit Kinrick
Service/branch Breetish Airmy
Years o service1914–1918, 1939[1]
RankMajor
UnitKeeng's Ryal Rifle Corps
Battles/warsWarld War I
AwairdsMilitar Cross
a. ^ Office vacant frae 6 Aprile 1955 tae 13 Julie 1962.

Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl o Avon, KG, MC, PC (12 Juin 1897 – 14 Januar 1977) wis a Breetish Conservative politeecian who served three periods as Foreign Secretar an then a relatively brief term as Prime Meenister o the Unitit Kinrick frae 1955 tae 1957.

Achievin rapid promotion as a young Member o Pairlament, he becam Furrin Secretar aged 38, afore resignin in protest at Neville Chamberlain's appeasement policy taewart Mussolini's Italy.[2][3] He again held that poseetion for maist o the Seicont Warld War, an a third time in the early 1950s. Haein been depute tae Winston Churchill for awmaist 15 years, he succeedit him as the leader o the Conservative Pairty an prime meenister in Apryle 1955, an a month later wan a general election.

Eden's warldwide reputation as an opponent o appeasement, a "man o peace", an a skilled diplomat wis owershaidaed in 1956 whan the Unitit States refuised tae support the Anglo-French militar response tae the Suez Creesis, that creetics athort pairty lines regairdit as an historic setback for Breetish foreign policy, seegnallin the end o Breetish predominance in the Middle East.[4] Maist historians argie that he made a series o blunners, espeicially nae realisin the deepth o American opposeetion tae militar action.[5] Twa months efter orderin an end tae the Suez operation, he resigned as prime meenister on grunds o ill heal an acause he wis widely suspectit o haein misled the Hoose o Commons ower the degree o collusion wi Fraunce an Israel.[6]

Eden is generally rankit amang the least successfu Breetish prime meenisters o the 20t century,[7] awtho twa braidly sympathetic biografies (in 1986 an 2003) hae gane some wey tae shiftin the balance o opeenion.[8] Biografer D. R. Thorpe descrived the Suez Creesis as "a truly tragic end tae his premiership, an ane that came tae assume a disproportionate importance in ony assessment o his career."[9]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. As Territorial, pre-ootbreak o Warld War II.
  2. Robert Mallett, "The Anglo‐Italian war trade negotiations, contraband control and the failure to appease Mussolini, 1939–40." Diplomacy and Statecraft 8.1 (1997): 137–167.
  3. Churchill 1948
  4. David Dutton: Anthony Eden. A Life and Reputation (London, Arnold, 1997).
  5. Tony Shaw, Eden, Suez & the Mass Media: Propaganda & Persuasion during the Suez Crisis (1996)
  6. Keith Layborn (2002). Fifty Key Figures in Twentieth Century British Politics. Routledge. p. 102. ISBN 9781134588749. Archived frae the oreeginal on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2016.  Unkent parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  7. "Churchill 'greatest PM of 20th Century'". bbc.co.uk. Archived frae the oreeginal on 29 October 2005. Retrieved 29 December 2005.  Unkent parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  8. Robert Rhodes James (1986) Anthony Eden; D.R. Thorpe (2003) Eden
  9. Thorpe (2003) Eden