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Penninghame is located in Dumfries and Galloway
Location within Dumfries an Gallowa
Cooncil area
Lieutenancy area
Sovereign stateUnitit Kinrick
EU PairlamentScotland
UK Pairlament
Scots Pairlament
Leet o places
54°57′28″N 4°29′07″W / 54.9579°N 4.4853°W / 54.9579; -4.4853Coordinates: 54°57′28″N 4°29′07″W / 54.9579°N 4.4853°W / 54.9579; -4.4853

Peningham (English: Penninghame) is a ceevil pairish in the historical coonty o Wigtounshire in Dumfries an Gallowa, Scotland. It is 8 mile nor'wast fae Wigtoun. The aurie is aboot 16 mile lang and fae 5-6 mile wide, boondit on the north an east bi the River Cree, an on the wast bi the River Blaidnoch, comprisin narley 38,000 acre, o that 12,000 acre wis arable, 600 acre wis wuidland and plantations, 1,600 acre wis meidaes, an the lave wis hill pastur, muirland, moss, etc.[1]

The pairish o Peningham is boondit on the sooth bi the ceevil pairish o Wigtoun an on the wast bi Kirkcowan an on the north bi the ceevil pairish o Cowmonell an on the east bi the civil pairish o Minnigaff.[2]

There is a thrang o naitur trails nearby, managed on behauf o the state bi Scottish Forestry.[3]

Etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]

Peningham (spelt sicweys in 1287 in Bagimonds Roll) his been argied tae be ane o the earliest Anglo-Saxon placenames in soothwast Scotland.[4] Hough his propone't that it is derived aither fae Auld English *pening-hām "ferm that a penny tax wis peyable on" or *pen-ingahām, the seicont element o that meanin "fermtoun o the follaers o ..." or "fermtoun o the sattlers at ...".[4] She argies again a derivation fae -ingahām steidit on the geographical isolation o Peningham fae the ither -ingahām names in soothren Scotland (Cowdinham, Tyninham, Whittingeham); the lack o the medial <a> in the early spellins o the name, and the obscur first element 'Pen'.[4]

James propones that the first element is Brittonic penn "heid, tap, summit, end" incorporatit intil an Auld English ing + ham name. It wad mean "laundhaudin name't (efter) Penn". He suggests that *Penn refers to the end o the rig on Baur Hill. James notes that Hough's etymology o a name "beirin monetary assessment o a laundhaudin" in the 8t centry wad be exceptional.[5]

The Clachan o Peningham[eedit | eedit soorce]

A view o the clachan o Peningham.

The Clachan o Penninham wis a sattlement that existit afore Newtoun Stewart wis built an is tharefore o some antiquity as the first wheen o hooses in Newtoun Stewart wis built in 1677 bi William Stewart. Newtoun Stewart wis a planned veelage an hinderly it supersedit the clachan.[6] Atween 1875 an 1885 the clachan an its destrict wis served bi a stap name't Mains of Penninghame Platform railwey station on the line tae Whithorn fae Newtoun Stewart with mercat days trains anely.

The Toun o Newtoun Stewart[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Dumfries an Gallowa Cooncil Administration Office for the Machars aurie o Wigtounshire is in the toun o Newtoun Stewart, that lies on the soothren edge o the Gallowa Forest Pairk in the ceevil pairish o Peningham.

The Primary Schuil[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thare his been a schuil in the Peningham aurie for ower 100 year. Merton Haw an aw his been considerable stendit an altert ower the years, umwhile being occupee'd as a schuil.

Peningham Kirk[eedit | eedit soorce]

Heidstanes within the Kirk o Peningham seemetry.

The kirk o Peningham belangt o auld til the bishops o Gallowa, that wis the awners o Peningham and hid thair chief dwallin at Clary, umwhile cried Clachary, less no ae mile fae the kirk.[6]

The recordit history o Peningham Pairsh begins wi the medieval Bishops o Gallowa. The buirial grund wis uised until 1777 whan the kirk wis closed an teh new Peningham Kirk wis built in Newtoun Stewart.[7]

Peningham Auld Kirk an Manse (in ruination) at the Clachan o Peningham is shawn on Ainslie's 1782 map.[8] The biggin shawin the back o the photae o the Clachan o Peninham kirkyaird is said tae be an auld inn. In 1877, a guide reports that the ruins o the kirk wis barelins visible.

In the new kirkyaird a heidstane commemorates the Rev. Robert Rowan, meenister o the pairish, a freend an correspondent o the historian Robert Wodrow. Haein studied at Glesga College, he obteent the licence tae preach in July 1695, in the follaein year he wis ordeent as the meenistor of Peningham (ten year efter the herryin o Margaret Wilson. Takkin deep concern in the affairs o the Kirk, he communicatit tae Wodrow meenit accoonts o the herryins inflictit on his pairishioners an ither durin the latter Stuart harryins. He deed on 9 August 1714, in his 55t year, an the 18t o his meenistry.[8]

Barony o Merton or Myrtoun alias Frethrid[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1477 King James III o Scotland grantit a chairter o Merton Haw tae John Kennedy o Blairquahan.[9][10][11]

On 1 Mairch 1504 or 1505: 'The terras et baroniam de Myretoun, cum turre, fortalicio (etc.) vic. (sheriffidom of) Wigtoun was wrate in Registrum magni sigilli regum Scotorum AD1424-1513 (RMS) Vol.II, deed no.2829 p. 601. In the same volume an aw wis deeds anent the barony o Myretoun, while shawn as "Baronium de Frethird or Frethrid, vic. (shirradom o) Wigtoun:, pp 236-7 no. 1162; pp. 272-3 nos 1336 an 1377 (!0 Dec 1477) an no. 1654.[12]

On 27 Februar 1506: the Register o the Great Seal o Scotland recoreds a chairter p. 624 no 2943, Gawino Kennedy de Blarequhan hid terres et Baronium de Frethird.

On 20 Juin 1508, p.693 no.3245, John Kennedy de Blairquhan re Capella S. Ninian in baronia sue de Myrtoun alies Frethrid vic. Wigtoun. Ths [[Saunt Ringan}|St Ninian]]'s chaipel is juist til the sooth o Glenhapple, Peningham, near Cruise o Cree and Peningham Hoose.[13][14]

10 Januar 1541: Barony o Martyn-Kennedy alias Frethrid vic. (shirradom o) Wigtoun Gilbert Kennedy an his guidwife Margaret Cunninghame hid thirl ands, recordit in RMS vol.III p.592 deed 2576[15]

Viscount Boyd of Merton, of Merton-in-Penninghame in the County of Wigtown, is a title in the Peerage o the Unitit Kinrick. It wis creautit in 1960 for the UK Conservative Pairty politeecian an unwhile Secretar o State for the Colonies, Alan Lennox-Boyd, 1t Viscount Boyd o Merton. As o 2010 the title is haudit bi his auldest son, the seicont Viscount, that succeedit in 1983.

A bronze axe, noo in the Stranraer Museum, wis fund in boggy grund at Merton Haw, aboot 2 mile wast o Newton Stewart. Merton Haw is a Category B leetit biggin.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

On 1 Juin 1557, the launds o Clarie/Clarie an Ower Baur[16] hid umwhile been mailt for 19 year by Bishop Andrew Durie tae Walter Stewart o Barcly, as recorded in the beuk "Wigtouwnshire Charters" (Scottish Records Society, p. 248 no.347). In this beuk an aw, Peningham wis the uisual dwallin o the Bishops o Gallowa, Bishop Alexander Gordon o Clary dee'd here in 1576. The 10 merkland o Grange o Peningham, 5 merkland o Claire, 5 Merkland o Ower Baur, 5 merkland o Barchelauchlyne (possibly Barcly, in 1189 thare wis a Walter de Berchelay, chaumerlain), 5 merkland o Barquharrane, aw lyin in the Merse o Cree, wis grantit bi Bishop Alexander Gordon tae Alexander Stewart o Garlies an Katherine Stewart, marraes, an the 5 merkland o Carnestik an Polchullie (Polwillie ?) wis feued tae Mr. John Steward an Egidia Gordon, marraes.

Castle Stewart is north o Newtoun Stewart, an Peningham. Scots Peerage, vol.IV recoreds that Sir Alexander Stewart o Garlies an his third guidwife, Catherine Stewart (dochter o Walter Stewart o Barclye/Barcly, abuin) hid a son, Anthony Stewart, that was the parson o Peningham an ancestor o Colonel William Stewart that purchased the launds o Castle Stewart, umwhile style't Kilcreuchie.[17][18]

Colonel William Stewart bocht the launds umwhile kent as Calcruchie an built Castle Stewart. The reference for the plain o this castle is in "The Castellated and Domestic Architecture of Scotland bi David MacGibbon and Thomas Ross, pub. 1892 pp. 246–8.[19]

All Saints Episcopal Kirk, Challoch, wis built as a preevat chaipel for Edward James Stopford-Blair o Peninghame Hoose and consecratit in 1872. It wis designt by the airchitects W G Haberson & Pite.

Moniment o National Importance[eedit | eedit soorce]

Near Peningham is Skaith Mote, the site o a smaw timmer castle o medieval date.[20][21]

Archaeology[eedit | eedit soorce]

The National Gailerie o Scotland - Museum o Antiquities o Scotland his bronze implements (Sir Herbert Eustance Maxell, 1885) leets (item 48) 8 x 21 inch an (item 49) 2 x 21 inch bronze axes fae Peningham.

There wis atween 1,200 and 1,500 auncient English cuinyies fund in the field in the pairish o Peningham, shawin the heids o King Edward, Keen Alexander, etc. Some mintit in Briston micht hae been aboot 1280 AD (CE).

Some places in north Peningham that are o interest til archaelogists, airtists, an walkers on the Soothren Upland Wey is:

  • Castle Stewart (on launds o Kilcreuchie or Calcruchie), north o Newtoun Stewart[22]
  • Skaithe Motte an Bailey[21]
  • Castle Loch (Black Loch, that souks intil Ochiltree Loch) wi Mickle Castle atween baith lochs[23][24]
  • Ochiltree Loch wi Little o Mickle Castle on the north shore[24]
  • Ochiltree, north o Ochilltree Hill[25]
  • Loch Maberry wi a castle on the eastren shore[26]
  • The Machars[27]

Namely residenters[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Alexander Gordon (c. 1516-1575) - Airchbishop o Glesga, Bishop o the Isles, an Bishop o Gallowa, born in Peningham
  • Caiptain Sir Murray Maxwell (1775-1831) - Ryal Navy officer that served durin the French Revolutionary an Napoleonic Wars, born in Peningham
  • Edward Black (1793-1845) - meenister an teacher in Canadae associatit wi the Kirk o Scotland, born in Peningham
  • James Blair (c. 1788-1841) - Irish-born sklave-awner an Tory MP. He bocht the Peningham estate in 1825.[28]

Gailerie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Leetit biggins in Peningham[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Baltersan Steading With Silo
  • Challoch, All Saints Church Manse With Retaining Walls And Gatepiers
  • Mochrum Park Lodge With Gates Gatepiers And Quadrant Walls
  • Penninghame Open Prison (Formerly Penninghame House) With Stables And Walled Garden
  • Baltersan Farmhouse
  • Penninghame Clachan
  • Challoch, Lingree Bridge
  • Castle Stewart
  • Merton Hall
  • Challoch, All Saints Episcopal Church With Boundary Walls And Gatepiers
  • Mochrum Park
  • Challoch Farmhouse And Steadings
  • Clauchaneasy Bridge
  • Killiemore (Formerly Kirkchrist House)

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Parish of Penninghame from The Gazetteer for Scotland".
  2. A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (1846).
  3. "Forestry Commission - Galloway Forest Park". Archived frae the original on 17 Mairch 2014. Retrieved 5 Apryle 2020.
  4. a b c Hough, Carole (2001). "The place-name Penninghame (Wigtonshire)". Notes and Queries. doi:10.1093/nq/48.2.99.
  5. James, Alan G. (2019). The Brittonic Language in the Old North: v (PDF). 2 Guide to the Elements. SPNS. p. 234. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 15 October 2019.
  6. a b Caledonia. vol. 3. p.434 by George Chalmers.
  7. Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae. New Edition. Vol. II. pp.373-375
  8. a b "View: A map of the county of Wigton. - Counties of Scotland, 1580-1928".
  9. "Zoopla > Search Property to Buy, Rent, House Prices, Estate Agents".
  10. "Ratification of the burgh in barony of the town of Myretoun".[deid airtin]
  11. The History of Galloway, by William Makenzie Vol. I. p.413
  12. Register of the Great Seal of Scotland. Vol.II. pp.272-273.nos. 1336-1337
  13. Register of the Great Seal of Scotland. p.693 no.3245.
  14. Chalmers, George (30 September 2020). "Caledonia; or, An account, historical and topographic, of North Britain; from the most ancient to the present times". London, Cadell – via Internet Archive.
  15. Scotland; Great Britain. General Register Office (Scotland) (30 September 1882). "Registrum magni sigilli regum Scotorum : The register of the Great seal of Scotland, A.D. 1306-1668". Edinburgh : General register house – via Internet Archive.
  16. "Mains Of Penninghame - ScotlandsPlaces".[deid airtin]
  17. Scots Peerage vol.IV p.155. Stewart, Earl of Galloway.
  18. Records of Parliament.1696/9/195.William II:Manuscript. Ratification in favour of William Stewart of Castlestewart
  19. MacGibbon, David; Ross, Thomas (30 September 1887). "The castellated and domestic architecture of Scotland from the twelfth to the eighteenth century". Edinburgh : D. Douglas – via Internet Archive.
  20. "Historic Environment Scotland".
  21. a b "Site Record for Skaith Mote Details Details". Archived frae the original on 2 Apryle 2015. Retrieved 5 Apryle 2020.
  22. Scottish History Society, vol. LI (51) : Wigtownshire Charters. ed. by R.C. Reid, LLD. Parish of Penninghame.
  23. "Welcome to Canmore - Canmore".[deid airtin]
  24. a b "Loch Ochiltree - Canmore".[deid airtin]
  25. "3. New Luce to Bargrennan". Archived frae the original on 4 Mairch 2016. Retrieved 5 Apryle 2020.
  26. "Loch Maberry Castle - Canmore". Archived frae the original on 13 Apryle 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  27. Archived 2016-04-05 at the Wayback Machine - United Kingdom
  28. M'Kerlie, Peter Handyside (1870). History of the Lands and Their Owners in Galloway. vol 1. Edinburgh: William Paterson. p. 309. Retrieved 22 Juin 2014.

External links[eedit | eedit soorce]