Enna

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Enna
Comune
Comune di Enna
Panorama o Enna
Panorama o Enna
Enna is locatit in Italy
Enna
Enna
Location o Enna in Italy
Coordinates: 37°33′48″N 14°16′34″E / 37.56333°N 14.27611°E / 37.56333; 14.27611
Kintra Italy
Region Sicily
Province Enna (EN)
Frazioni Enna Bassa, Pergusa, Borgo Cascino, Calderari, Bondo Ennate
Govrenment
 • Mayor Paolo Garofalo (PD)
Aurie
 • Total 357 km2 (138 sq mi)
Elevation 931 m (3,054 ft)
Population (31 October 2009)
 • Tot 27,998
 • Density 78/km2 (200/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Ennesi
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Simmer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 94100, 94100
Dialin code 0935
Patron saunt SS. Mary o Visitation
Saunt day 2 Julie
Wabsteid Offeecial wabsteid

Enna About this sound listen  (Sicilian: Castrugiuvanni; Greek: Ἔννα; Laitin: Henna an less frequently Haenna) is a ceety an comune locatit roughly at the centre o Sicily, soothren Italy, in the province o Enna, touerin abuin the surroondin kintraside. It haes earned the elk-names "belvedere" (panoramic viewpoint) an "ombelico" (navel) o Sicily.

At 931m abuin sea level, Enna is the heichest Italian province caipital. Till 1926 the toun wis kent as Castrogiovanni.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Enna is situatit near the centre o the island; whence the Roman writer Cicero cried it Mediterranea maxime, reportin that it wis athin a day's jurney o the nearest pynt on aw the three coasts. The peculiar situation o Enna is describit bi several auncient authors, an is indeed ane o the maist remarkable in Sicily. The auncient ceety wis placit on the level summit o a gigantic hill, sae lofty as amaist tae deserve tae be cried a muntain, an surroondit on aw sides wi precipitous clints amaist wholly inaccessible, except in a vera few spots which are easily defendit, abundantly suppleed wi watter which gushes frae the face o the rocks on aw sides, an haein a fine plain or table laund o aboot 5 km in circumference on the summit, it forms ane o the maist remarkable naitural fortresses in the warld.

Prehistoric[eedit | eedit soorce]

Airchaeological fyndins datin frae the 14t century BC hae pruivit the human presence in the aurie syne Neolithic times. A dounset frae afore the 11t century BC, assigned bi some tae the Sicani, haes been identifee'd at the tap o the hill; later it wis a centre o the Siculi. In historical times it became renouned in Sicily an Italy for the cult o the goddess Demeter (the Roman Ceres), whose grove in the neebourheid wis kent as the umbilicus Siciliae ("The navel o Sicily"). Ceres' temple in Henna wis a famit steid o wirship.[1]

The oreegin o the toponym Henna remains obscur.

Clessical period[eedit | eedit soorce]

Dionysius I o Syracuse seems tae hae fully appreciatit Enna's importance, an repeatitly attemptit tae mak hissel maister o the place; at first bi aidin an encouragin Aeimnestus, a ceetizen o Enna, tae seize on the sovereign pouer, an efterwairds, fawin in his object bi this means, turnin against him an assistin the Ennaeans tae get rid o thair despot. He did no housomeivver at this time accomplish his purpose, an it wis no till a later period that, efter repeatit expeditions against the neebourin Sicilian ceeties, Enna wis betrayed intae his haunds an aw. In the time o Agathocles we fynd Enna for a time subject tae that tyrant, but when the Agrigentines unner Xenodicus began tae proclaim the restoration o the ither ceeties o Sicily tae freedom, the Ennaeans wur the first tae jyne thair staundart, an opened thair gates tae Xenodicus, 309 BC. In the First Punic War Enna is repeatitly mentioned; it wis taken first bi the Carthaginians unner Hamilcar, an subsequently recaptured bi the Romans, but in baith instances bi treachery an no bi force.

In the Seicont Punic War, while Marcellus wis engagit in the siege o Syracuse (214 BC), Enna became the scene o a fearful massacre. The defection o several Sicilian touns frae Roum haed alairmit Pinarius the govrenor o Enna, lest the ceetizens o that place shoud follae thair ensaumple; an in order tae forestaw the apprehendit treachery, he wi the Roman garrison fell upon the ceetizens when assembled in the theatre, an put thaim aw tae the swuird athout distinction, efter which he gae up the ceety tae be plundered bi his sodgers. Aichty years later Enna again became conspicuous as the heidquairters o the First Servile War in Sicily (134 BC-132 BC), which first breuk oot thare unner the lead o Eunus, who made hissel maister in the first instance o Enna, which frae its central poseetion an great naitural strenth became the centre o his operations, an the receptacle, o the plunder o Sicily. It wis the last place that held oot against the proconsul Rupilius, an wis at lenth betrayed intae his haunds, its impregnable strenth haein defied aw his efforts. Accordin tae Strabo, it suffered severely upon this occasion (which, indeed, coud scarcely be itherwise), an regards this period as the commencement o its subsequent decline. Cicero, housomeivver, notices it repeatitly in a manner which seems tae imply that it wis still a flourishin municipal toun: it haed a growthie territory, well-adaptit for the growthe o corn, an diligently cultivatit, till it wis rendered amaist desolate bi the exactions o Verres. Frae this time little is kent aboot Enna: Strabo speaks o it as still inhabitit, tho bi a smaw population, in his time: an the name appears in Pliny amang the municipal touns o Sicily, as well as in Ptolemy an the Itineraries.

When the Roman Empire wis dividit in 395, Sicily became pairt o the Wastren Roman Empire. The notit senatorial faimily o the Nicomachi haed estates in Sicily, an aroond 408 the politeecian an grammarian Nicomachus Flavianus wirkit on a edeetion o the first 10 beuks o Livy durin a stay on his estate in Enna, as it is recordit in the subscriptions o the manuscripts o Livy.

Post-Roman[eedit | eedit soorce]

Efter the faw o the Wastren Roman Empire, it continued tae flourish throuoot the Middle Ages as an important Byzantine stranghauld. In 859, in the course o the Islamic conquest o Sicily, efter several attempts an a lang siege, the toun wis taken bi Muslim troops who haed tae sneak in ane bi ane throu a sewer tae breach the toun's hardy defenses. The name for the ceety, 'Qas'r Ianni' (Fort o John), wis a combination o "qas'r" (a corruption o the Laitin "castrum", fort), an "Ianni", a corruption o "Henna". The name in the native dialect o Sicily remained Castro Janni (Castrogiovanni) till the renamin bi order o Benito Mussolini in 1927. The Normans captured it in 1087. Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor an Keeng o Sicily, established a simmer residence here.

Enna haed a prominent role in the Sicilian Vespers that lead tae the Aragonese conquest o Sicily, an thencefort enjoyed a short communal autonomy. Keeng Frederick III o Sicily favored it an embellished the ceety; it housomeivver suffered a period o decay unner the Spainyie domination. It wis restored as provincial caipital in the 1920s. It haes acome a varsity ceety in 2002.

Classical meethologie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The neebourheid o Enna is celebratit in meethological story as the place whence Proserpine wis carriet aff bi Pluto.[2] The exact spot assigned bi local tradeetion as the scene o this event wis a smaw loch surroondit bi lofty an precipitous hills, aboot 8 km frae Enna, the meadaes on the banks o which aboondit in flouers, while a cavern or grotto haurd bi wis shawn as that frae which the infernal keeng suddent emergit. This loch is cried "Pergus" bi Ovid [3] an Claudian,[4] but it is remarkable that neither Cicero nor Diodorus speaks o ony loch in pairticular as the scene o the occurrence: the umwhile housomeivver says, that aroond Enna wur lacus lucique plurimi, et laetissimi flores omni tempore anni.[5] Diodorus, on the contrar, describes the spot whence Proserpine wis carriet aff as a meadae aboondin in flouers, especially odoriferous anes, tae sic a degree that it wis impossible for hoonds tae follae thair prey bi the scent athort this tract: he speaks of it as enclosed on aw sides bi steep clints, an haein groves an mosses in the neebourheid, but maks no mention o a lake.[6] The cavern housomeivver is alludit tae bi him as well as bi Cicero, an wad seem tae pynt tae a definite locality. At the present day thare still remains a smaw loch in a basin-shaped hollae surroondit bi great hills, an a cavern near it is still pointit oot as that describit bi Cicero an Diodorus, but the flouers hae in great measur disappeared, as well as the groves an firths which umwhile surroondit the spot, an bi the 19t century, the scene wis describit bi travelers as bare an desolate.[7]

The connection o this meeth wi Enna naturally led tae (if it did no rather arise frae) the peculiar wirship o the twa goddesses Ceres an Proserpine in that ceety: an we learn frae Cicero that thare wis a temple o Ceres o sic great antiquity an sanctity that the Sicilians repaired thither wi a feelin o releegious awe, as if it wur the goddess hersel rather than her sanctuar that thay wur aboot tae veesit. Yet this did nae preserve it frae the sacrilegious haunds o Verres, who carriet aff frae thare a bronze image o the deity hersel, the maist auncient as well as the maist veneratit in Sicily.[8] Nae remains o this temple are nou visible: accordin tae Fazello it stuid on the brink o the precipice, an haes been wholly carriet awa bi the fawing doun o great masses o rock frae the edge o the clint.[9] Nor are thare ony ither vestiges o antiquity still remainin at Enna: thay wur probably destroyed bi the Saracens, who erectit the castle an several ither o the maist prominent biggins o the modren ceety.[10]

Coinage[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thare exist coins o Enna unner the Roman dominion, wi the legend "MUN. (Municipium) HENNA" sicweys confirmin the authority o Cicero, aw the best manuscripts o which hae the aspiratit form o the name.[11] The maist auncient Greek coin o the ceety gies the name "ΗΕΝΝΑΙΟΝ"[12] thare is tharefore little dout that this form (Henna) o the auncient name is the mair correct, tho Enna is the mair uisual.

Varsity, cultur an eddication[eedit | eedit soorce]

Enna is nou an important centre in airchaeological an eddicational studies. The Kore Varsity o Enna wis offeecially foondit in 2004.

Main sichts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Monuments[eedit | eedit soorce]

The maist important monuments o Enna are:

  • The Castello di Lombardìa (Lombardy Castle), perhaps the maist important ensaumple o militar airchitectur in Sicily. It wis creatit in vera auld times bi Sicanians, rebuilt bi Frederick II o Sicily an restructurit unner Frederick II o Aragon. The castle, which bears this name acause o the garrison o Lombard troops that defended it in Norman times, haes an irregular layoot which ance comprised 20 touers: o the sax remainin, the Torre Pisana is the best preservit ane. It haes Guelph merlons. The castle wis dividit intae three different spaces separatit bi waws: the first courtyard is hame tae a renouned ootdoor leeric theatre in which heich quality shows are performed; the seicont ane hooses a lairge green pairk, while in the third courtyard it is possible tae see the vestiges o ryal apairtments, a bishop's chapel, medieval preesons an the Pisan Touer.
Interior o the Cathedral o Enna.
The Lombardy Castle.
  • The Duomo (Cathedral), a notewirthy ensaumple o releegious airchitectur in Sicily, biggit in the 14t century bi queen Eleonora, Frederick III's wife, but lairgely renovatit efter the fire o 1446. The great Baroque facade, in yellae tufa-stane, is surmoontit bi a massive campanile wi finely shapit decorative elements. The portal on the richt side is frae the 16t century, while the ither is frae the oreeginal 14t-century edifice. The interior haes a nave wi twa aisles separatit bi massive Corinthian columns, an three apses. The stucco decoration is frae the 16t an 17t centuries. Airt wirks include a 15t-century crucifix panel pentin, a canvas bi Guglielmo Borremans, the presbytery pentins bi Filippo Paladini (1613), a Baroque side portal. The cathedral's treasur is hoosed in the Alessi Museum, an haes precious ornaments, the gowd croun wi diamonds "Croun o the Virgin," Byzantine icons, thoosans o auncient coins an ither collections.
  • Palazzo Varisano, hoosin the Regional Archaeological Museum o Enna, wi material datin frae the Copper Age tae the 6t century AD comin frae mony airchaeological auries in the Province o Enna.
  • Torre di Federico, an octagonal auncient touer which wis allegedly a simmer residence o Frederick II o Hohenstaufen. The twa floors possess bonnie vaults. The aspect o the biggin is austere. It wis pairt o a bigger complex, namit Auld castle an destroyed bi Arabs, o which nouadays thare remain some pieces o the auld, imposin waws on the tap o the green hill hoosin municipal gardens whaur the Touer rises.
  • The Campanile o the destroyed kirk o San Giovanni, featurs pointit airches wi finely shapit airchivolts, an a three licht mullioned windae wi Catalan-style decorations.
  • The Municipal Library, locatit in the San Francesco biggin. The latter kirk haes a notewirthy 15t century campanile an, in the interior, a fine painted Cross frae the same century.
  • The kirk o San Tommaso is o note for its 15t century belfry, wi three orders. It haes windaes framit bi a agile full-centered airchivolt. The kirk conteens a marble icon (1515) attributit tae Giuliano Mancino an precious frescoes bi Borremans.
  • The Janniscuru Gate is the anerly ane preservit o the 7 auld gates ance locatit at the entrance o the toun. It is a fine 17t century Roman airch, poseetioned in a charmin naitural settin unner auld steps in a aurie vera rich in rock grottoes uised as a necropolis thoosans o years ago, juist unner the auncient, tradeetional quairter o Fundrisi.

Pergusa loch an archaeologic steid[eedit | eedit soorce]

Loch Pergusa (Laitin: Pergus lacus or Hennaeus lacus) is set atween a group o muntains in the chain o Erei, an it is locatit 5 km frae Enna. It is a vital place in the migratory current o lots o birds. In addeetion tae birds, which are certainly the protagonists o the Pergusa natur reserve, here thare are interestin species o mammals, reptiles, amphibians an invertebrates.

Aroond the loch, thare is the maist important racin track o Soothren Italy, the Autodromo di Pergusa, that hostit internaitional competitions an events, sic as Formula Ane, Formula 3000 an a Ferrari Festival wi Michael Schumacher.

In the aurie o Pergusa loch we can fynd a airchaeological steid an aw, kent as Cozzo Matrice, practically the rests o a auld fortifee'd veelage, whaur some imposin waws datin aboot 8000 BC, a sacred citadel, a rich necropolis an the remains o a auncient temple dedicatit tae Demeter, datin mair nor 2000 years ago.

The important forest an green aurie namit Selva Pergusina (that means "Pergusa's Firth") surroonds a pairt o the Loch Pergusa Glen, evocatin a scenographic panorama.

Pergusa is strangly linkit tae the meeth o the Greek Persephone, Demeter's dochter, which wis kidnappit here bi Hades.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Köppen climate clessification subteep for this climate is "Het-simmer Mediterranean climate|Csa" (Mediterranean climate).[13]

Climate data for Enna (Elevation 3,054ft)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 20.4
(68.7)
19.8
(67.6)
21.8
(71.2)
23.2
(73.8)
30
(86.0)
35
(95.0)
41
(105.8)
38
(100.4)
33
(91.4)
28
(82.4)
22.4
(72.3)
21.2
(70.2)
41
(105.8)
Average heich °C (°F) 6.5
(43.7)
6.9
(44.4)
8.4
(47.1)
11.8
(53.2)
17.6
(63.7)
22.3
(72.1)
25.4
(77.7)
25.6
(78.1)
21.5
(70.7)
15.8
(60.4)
12.3
(54.1)
8.5
(47.3)
15.2
(59.4)
Average law °C (°F) 2.9
(37.2)
2.7
(36.9)
3.8
(38.8)
6.1
(43.0)
11.1
(52.0)
14.9
(58.8)
17.9
(64.2)
18.2
(64.8)
15
(59.0)
10.8
(51.4)
7.9
(46.2)
4.8
(40.6)
9.7
(49.5)
Record law °C (°F) −5.8
(21.6)
−5
(23.0)
−5
(23.0)
−1.4
(29.5)
0.6
(33.1)
6.8
(44.2)
10.4
(50.7)
11.4
(52.5)
8.4
(47.1)
3.2
(37.8)
−1
(30.2)
−4
(24.8)
−5.8
(21.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 37.3
(1.47)
35.1
(1.38)
32
(1.26)
21.3
(0.84)
16.3
(0.64)
13.5
(0.53)
10.4
(0.41)
24.9
(0.98)
24.1
(0.95)
57.9
(2.28)
36.6
(1.44)
51.6
(2.03)
360.7
(14.20)
[citation needit]

Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Barbette S. Spaeth, The Roman goddess Ceres, pp. 73-74, 78-79, 129 (U. of Texas Press 1996) ISBN 0-292-77693-4.
  2. Ovid, Met. v. 385-408; Claudian, de Rapt. Proserp. ii.; Diod. v. 3.
  3. Met. v. 386.
  4. l. c. ii. 112.
  5. Cicero, In Verrem iv. 48.
  6. v. 3.
  7. Richard Hoare (1819) Classical Tour. London: J. Mawman, vol. ii, p. 252; Gustav Parthey (1834) Wanderungen durch Sicilien und die Levante. Berlin: Nicolaische Buchhandlung, Tl. 1, p. 135; Marquis of Ormonde (1850) Autumn in Sicily. Dublin: Hodges and Smith, p. 106, who has given a view of the lake.
  8. Cicero In Verrem iv. 4. 8.
  9. Tommaso Fazello x. 2. p. 444; M. of Ormonde, p. 92.
  10. Hoare, l. c. p. 249.
  11. Zumpt, ad Verr. p. 392.
  12. Eckhel, vol. i. p. 206.
  13. Climate Summary for Enna, Italy

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]