Manaus

Frae Wikipedia
Lowp tae: navigation, rake
Manaus
Municipality
Municipality o Manaus
Manaus center, Frae tap left: Amazonas Theater, Tap richt: View o Manaus frae Cidade Nova, Middleof left: Manaus Iranduba Bridge an Rio Negro, Middle richt: A sichtseein boats in Meetin o Watter, 3rd left: Sunset in Rio Negro's resort steid, 3rd richt: San Sebastian Cathedral in Manaus, Bottom: View o Nossa Senhora das Gracas aurie

Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): "A Paris dos Trópicos" ("The Paris o the Tropics")
Manaus is located in Brazil
Manaus
Manaus
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 03°06′0″S 60°01′0″W / 3.10000°S 60.01667°W / -3.10000; -60.01667
Kintra  Brazil
Region North
State Bandeira do Amazonas.svg Amazonas
Foondit October 24, 1669
Government
 • Mayor Arthur Virgílio Neto (PSDB)
Area
 • Municipality 11,401 km2 (4,402 sq mi)
Elevation 92 m (302 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Municipality 1,861,838 (7t)
 • Density 163.3/km2 (423/sq mi)
 • Metro 2,283,906 (11t)
Time zone AST (UTC-4)
 • Summer (DST) DST no langer uised (UTC-4)
Postal Code 69000-000
Area code(s) +55 92
Website Manaus, Amazonas

Manaus (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐˈnaws] or [mɐˈnawʃ]) is a ceety in Brazil, the caipital o the state o Amazonas. It is situatit at the confluence o the Negro an Solimões rivers. It is the maist populous ceety o Amazonas, accordin tae the statistics o Brazilian Institute o Geografie an Statistics, an is a popular ecotourist destination. Manaus belongs tae mesoregion Center Amazonense an microregion Manaus. It is locatit in northren Brazil, 1,936 kilometers (1,203 mi) frae the federal caipital, Brasília.

The ceety wis foondit in 1669 as the Fort o São José do Rio Negro.[1] It wis elevatit tae a toun in 1832 wi the name o "Manaus", which means "mither o the gods" in tribute tae the indigenous naition o Manaós, an legally transformed intae a ceety on October 24 o 1848 wi the name o Cidade da Barra do Rio Negro, Portuguese for "The Ceety o the Margins o Black River". Only on September 4 o 1856 did it revert tae its current name.[2]

It wis kent at the beginnin o the century, as Heart o the Amazon an Ceety o the Forest.[3] Currently its main economic ingine is the Industrial Pool o Manaus.

It is the lairgest metropolitan aurie in Northren Brazil an the elevent in aw o Brazil, wi 2,283,906 indwallers (IBGE/2012). The population in 2012 wis 1.85 million fowk; it is the maist populous ceety in North Region an seventh maist populous ceety o Brazil, accordin tae data frae Brazilian Institute o Geografie an Statistics, the IBGE. The ceety gradually increased its participation in the GDP o Brazil in recent decades, risin tae account for 1.4% ofthe economy o the kintra in 2010, wi aw that economic pouer comin mainly frae the Free Economic Zone locatit in the ceety. Currently, the ceety is ane o 12 maist influential ceeties o the kintra. Manaus alone represents 10.89% o the population o the whole o Northern Brazil an 49.9% o the population o the Amazon.[4]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Early settlement[eedit | eedit soorce]

The history o the European colonization o Manaus began in 1669 wi the buildin o the Fort o São José da Barra do Rio Negroa bi Portugal in order tae ensur its predominance in the region, especially against the Dutch, at that time heidquartered in what is today Suriname. The fort wis constructit in rock an clay, wi fower cannon guardin the curtains.[5] It continued tae function for mair than 114 years. Next tae the fort there wur mony indigenous mestizos, who helped in its construction an began tae live in the vicinity.[5]

The population grew so much that in 1695, the missionaries (Carmelite, Jesuit, Franciscan) built a nearby chapel dedicatit tae Oor Lady o the Conception, which in time acame the patron saunt o the ceety.[6]

The Ryal Charter o Mairch 3 o 1755, creatit the Capitania o Sao Jose do Rio Negro, wi heidquarters in Mariuá (nou Barcelos), but the govrenor, Lobo D'Almada, fearin Spanish invasions, the seat went back tae the bar in place o 1791, bein locatit at the confluence o the rivers Black an Amazon it wis a strategic pynt. On November 13 o 1832, the place o the bar acame the category o toun wi the name o the toun o Manaus and on October 24 o 1848, wi Law 145 o the Provincial Assembly Paraense, acquired the name o the Bar o the Ceety o Rio Negro. On September 4 o 1856 the govrenor Herculano Ferreira Pena finally gae him the name "Manaus".[7]

Cabanagem[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Cabanagem wis the revolt in which blacks, Indians an mestizos protestit against the poleetical elite an teuk pouer in 1835. The entry o the Heich Amazonas (Manaus today, which wis the cradle o the ceety in the Westren Amazon) in Cabanagem wis crucial for the birth o the current state o the Amazon. Durin the period o revolution, the Cabanos o the Heich Amazon, baunds o rebels, roamed throughout the region, an in maist settlements their arrival wis greeted bi the non-white population's spontaneously jynin their ranks an there wis a greater nummer o adherents tae the movement. Wi that there wis an integration o fowk surroundin thus fairmin the state, thanks tae Cabanagem.[8] the ceety wis built acause o the rubber trees.

The rubber boom[eedit | eedit soorce]

Manaus wis at the center o the Amazon region's rubber boom durin the late 19t century. For a time, it wis "ane o the gaudiest ceeties o the warld"[9] Ane historian haes written, "No extravagance, however absurd, deterred" the rubber barons. "If ane rubber baron boucht a vast yacht, anither would install a tame lion in his villa, an a third would watter his horse on champagne."[10] The decadence extendit tae a grand opera hoose, vast domes an gildit balconies, an marble, glass, an crystal, frae aroond Europe. The opera hoose cost ten million (public-funded) dollars, but its foolhardiness wis demonstratit bi the daith bi yellae fever o hauf the members o ane visitin opera troupe.[11] The opera hoose, cried the Teatro Amazonas, still exists today; it haes been restored, wis uised in the Werner Herzog film Fitzcarraldo, an efter a type o interlude lastin almaist 90 years, presents operas ance again.[12]

When the seeds o the rubber tree wur smuggled oot o the Amazon region, Brazil lost its monopoly on the product an Manaus fell intae poverty. The rubber boom haed broucht electricity tae the ceety afore it arrived in mony European ceeties, but the end o the rubber boom made the generators too expensive tae run, an the ceety lost airtifeecial lichtin for years.[13]

The declaration o a duty free zone in Manaus addit tae the economic prosperity o the ceety.[14]

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The lairgest ceety in northren Brazil, Manaus occupies an aurie o 11,401 square kilometers, wi a density o 144.4 indwallers/km ². It is the neighborin ceety o Presidente Figueiredo, Careiro, Iranduba, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara an Novo Airão.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Manaus haes a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification "Am"). Rainfaw intensity is somewhat saisonal, wi ane hauf o the year (coincidin wi the Soothren winter) bein hauf as rainy as the ither. Manaus technically haes a dry saison month, August, where less than 60 mm (2 in) o precipitation faws. Acause o this dry saison month, the ceety’s climate faws unner the tropical monsoon climate category instead o the tropical rainforest climate category. Average annual temperature is 26.6 °C (80 °F), wi mair or less consistent temperatures aw year roond.

Climate data for Manaus, Brazil (1961-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 37
(99)
37
(99)
36
(97)
37
(99)
36
(97)
35
(95)
37
(99)
37
(99)
37
(99)
37
(99)
37
(99)
37
(99)
37
(99)
Average heich °C (°F) 30.5
(86.9)
30.4
(86.7)
30.6
(87.1)
30.7
(87.3)
30.8
(87.4)
31.0
(87.8)
31.3
(88.3)
32.6
(90.7)
32.9
(91.2)
32.8
(91.0)
32.1
(89.8)
31.3
(88.3)
31.42
(88.55)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.1
(79.0)
26.0
(78.8)
26.1
(79.0)
26.3
(79.3)
26.3
(79.3)
26.4
(79.5)
26.5
(79.7)
27.0
(80.6)
27.5
(81.5)
27.6
(81.7)
27.3
(81.1)
26.7
(80.1)
26.65
(79.97)
Average laich °C (°F) 23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
23.2
(73.8)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.0
(73.4)
22.7
(72.9)
23.0
(73.4)
23.5
(74.3)
23.7
(74.7)
23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
23.26
(73.86)
Record laich °C (°F) 18
(64)
20
(68)
20
(68)
20
(68)
20
(68)
18
(64)
13
(55)
17
(63)
17
(63)
20
(68)
20
(68)
16
(61)
18
(64)
Rainfall mm (inches) 260.1
(10.24)
288.3
(11.35)
313.5
(12.343)
300.1
(11.815)
256.3
(10.091)
113.6
(4.472)
87.5
(3.445)
57.9
(2.28)
83.3
(3.28)
125.7
(4.949)
183.0
(7.205)
216.9
(8.539)
2,286.2
(90.008)
humidity 85 86 86 87 86 83 80 79 79 79 81 85 83
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 21 20 21 20 19 12 10 7 9 11 12 18 180
Mean monthly sunshine hours 114.7 86.8 99.2 111.0 148.8 186.0 213.9 226.3 156.0 170.5 141.0 130.2 1,784.4
Source no. 1: Warld Meteorological Organization.,[15] Hong Kong Observatory,[16]
Source no. 2: Weatherbase (record heichs an laichs, humidity)[17]

Vegetation[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Amazon represents ower hauf o the planet's remainin rainforests an comprises the lairgest an maist species-rich tract o tropical rainforest in the warld. Wet tropical forests are the maist species-rich biome, an tropical forests in the Americaes are consistently mair species rich than the wet forests in Africae an Asie.[18] As the lairgest tract o tropical rainforest in the Americaes, the Amazonian rainforests hae unparalleled biodiversity. Mair than 1/3 o aw species in the warld live in the Amazon Rainforest.[19]

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns – sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Manaus is twinned wi:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Foundation of Manaus
  2. About Manaus
  3. Heart of The Amazon and City of the Forest
  4. Facts of the city of Manaus
  5. 5.0 5.1 About Manaus (Inglis)
  6. History of Manaus
  7. Manaus History (Inglis)
  8. Cabanagem History
  9. David Grann. The Lost City of Z. Random House. New York: 2009. Page 87.
  10. Robin Furneaux. The Amazon: the Story of a Great River. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1969. Page 153.
  11. Grann 87.
  12. Christina Lamb, "A night at the opera - and 14 days on the Amazon to get there", The Sunday Telegraph, London, 17th June 2001
  13. Lamb, "A night at the opera."
  14. "Google Nieuws". News.google.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  15. Climate Information for Manaus, World Weather Information Service, Retrieved 08 October 2012.
  16. "Climatological Information for Manaus, Brazil". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  17. "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Manaus". Retrieved 8 October 2012. 
  18. Turner, I.M. 2001. The ecology of trees in the tropical rain forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-80183-4
  19. Amazon Rainforest, Amazon Plants, Amazon River Animals

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]