Santo Domingo

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This article is aboot the ceety. For ither uisses, see Santo Domingo (disambiguation).
Santo Domingo
Ceety
Santo Domingo de Guzmán

Coat of arms
Motto: Ciudad Primada de América
(First Ceety o Americae)
Santo Domingo is located in Dominican Republic
Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic
Coordinates: 18°30′0″N 69°59′0″W / 18.50000°N 69.98333°W / 18.50000; -69.98333
Kintra Banner o Dominican Republic Dominican Republic
Province Naitional Destrict
Foondit 1496
Foonder Bartholomew Columbus
Government
 • Mayor Roberto Salcedo
Area[1]
 • Total 104.44 km2 (40.32 sq mi)
 • Metro 1,400.79 km2 (540.85 sq mi)
Elevation[2] 14 m (46 ft)
Population (2010)
 • Total 1,484,789
 • Density 14,216.6/km2 (36,821/sq mi)
 • Urban 2,552,398
 • Metro 3,712,391
 • Gentilic Capitaleño/a
Postal Code(s) 10100 to 10699 Distrito Nacional, 10700 tae 11999 Santo Domingo
Website Ayuntamiento del Distrito Nacional

Santo Domingo, kent offeecially as Santo Domingo de Guzmán, is the caipital an lairgest ceety in the Dominican Republic. Its metropolitan population wis 2,084,852 in 2003, an estimatit at 2,253,437 in 2006. The ceety is locatit on the Caribbean Sea, at the mouth o the Ozama River. Foondit bi Bartholomew Columbus in 1496, it is the auldest continuously inhabitit European settlement in the Americas, an wis the first seat o Spainyie colonial rule in the New Warld. It lies athin the boondaries o the Distrito Nacional (D.N.; "Naitional District"), itsel bordered on three sides bi Santo Domingo Province.

Santo Domingo bore the name "Ciudad Trujillo", efter the kintra's dictator, frae 1930 tae 1961. The day, Santo Domingo is the Dominican Republic's major metropolis, an is the lairgest ceety in the Caribbean bi population.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]


Alcázar de Colón, in the historic center o Santo Domingo's Zona Colonial

Afore the arrival o Christopher Columbus in 1492, the Taíno fowk populatit the island they cawed Quisqueya (mither o aw lands) an Ayiti (land o heich muntains), which Columbus named Hispaniola. It includes the pairt nou occupied bi the Republic o Haiti. At the time, the island's territory consistit o five chiefdoms: Marién, Maguá, Maguana, Jaragua, an Higüey. These wur ruled respectively bi caciques (chiefs) Guacanagarix, Guarionex, Caonabo, Bohechío, an Cayacoa.

Datin tae 1496, when the Spainyie settled there, an offeecially tae 5 August 1498, Santo Domingo is the auldest European ceety in the Americas. Bartholomew Columbus foondit the settlement an named it La Nueva Isabela, efter an earlier settlement in the north named efter the Queen o Spain Isabel I. It wis later renamed "Santo Domingo", in honor o Saunt Dominic. Santo Domingo came tae be kent as the "Gateway tae the Caribbean".

Santo Domingo wis destroyed bi a hurricane in 1502, an the new Governor Nicolás de Ovando haed it rebuilt on a different site nearby.[3] The oreeginal layoot o the ceety an a lairge portion o its defensive wall can still be appreciatit today throughoot the Colonial Zone, declared a Warld Heritage Site bi UNESCO in 1990. The Colonial Zone, bordered bi the Río Ozama, an aa haes an impressive collection o 16t century biggins, includin palatial hooses an majestic kirks that reflect the architectural style o the late medieval period.

The ceety's maist important colonial biggins include the Catedral Santa María La Menor, cawed La Catedral Primada de América, Americae's First Cathedral, which states its distinction; the Alcázar de Colón, America's first castle, ance the residence o Viceroy o the Indies Don Diego Colón, a son o Christopher Columbus; the Monasterio de San Francisco, the ruins o the first monastery in Americae; the Museo de las Casas Reales, the umwhile Palace o the Governor General an the Palace o Ryal Audiences; the Parque Colón (Columbus Park), a historic square; the Fortaleza Ozama, the auldest fortress in Americae; the Pantéon Nacional, a umwhile Jesuit edifice nou hostin the remains o various renowned members o the Dominican Order; an the Iglesia del Convento Dominico, the first convent in Americae.

Throughout its first century, Santo Domingo wis the launchin pad for mucjke o the exploration an conquest o the New Warld. The expeditions that led tae Hernando Cortes' conquest o Mexico an Balboa's sichtin o the Pacific Ocean aw stairtit frae Santo Domingo.

In 1586, Francis Drake captured the ceety, which he held for ransom.[4] Drake's invasion an pillagin o Hispaniola so weakened Spainyie dominion ower the island that for mair than 50 years aw but the caipital wis abandoned an left tae the mercy o the pirates. An expedition sent bi Oliver Cromwell in 1655 attacked the ceety o Santo Domingo, but wis defeatit, an athdrew an teuk Jamaica, instead.[5]

Frae 1795 tae 1822 the ceety chynged hands several times alang wi the colony it heidit. It wis cedit tae Fraunce in 1795, captured bi rebellious Haitian slaves in 1801, recovered bi Fraunce in 1802, an recovered bi Spain in 1809. In 1821 Santo Domingo became the caipital o an independent naition, Haití Español. This wis twa months later conquered bi Haiti. The ceety an the colony lost muckle o their Spainyie population as a result o these events.[4][6][7]

Santo Domingo wis again the caipital o a free naition, when Dominicans gained their independence frae Haitian rule on Februar 27, 1844 led bi their naitional hero Juan Pablo Duarte. The ceety wis a prize fought ower bi various poleetical factions ower the succeedin decades o instability. In addition, the kintra had tae fecht multiple battles wi Haiti; the Battle of March 19, Battle o Mairch 30, Battle o Las Carreras, an Battle o Beler, are a few o the maist prominent encounters, mentioned in the naitional anthem an wi ceety streets named efter them.[8] In 1861 Spain returned tae the kintra, haein struck a bargain wi Dominican leader Pedro Santana wherebi the latter wis grantit several honorific titles an privileges, in exchynge for annexin the young naition back tae Spainyie rule. The Dominican Restoration War began in 1863 housomeivver, an in 1865 the country was free again efter Spain athdrew.

Ower the next twa-thirds o a century Santo Domingo an the Dominican Republic went through mony revolutions, pouer chynges, an occupation bi the Unitit States, 1916–24. The ceety wis struck bi hurricane San Zenón in 1930, which caused major damage. Efter its rebiggin, Santo Domingo wis kent offeecially as Ciudad Trujillo in honor o dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo, who governed frae 1930. Follaein his assassination in 1961 the ceety wis renamed back tae Santo Domingo. It wis the scene o street fechtin durin the 1965 Unitit States occupation o the Dominican Republic.

The year 1992 markt the 500t anniversary, El Quinto Centenario, o Christopher Columbus' Discovery o Americae. The Columbus Lichthoose – Faro a Colón – wi an approximate cost o 400 million Dominican pesos, was erected in Santo Domingo in honor of this occasion.[9]

Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Santo Domingo haes three sister ceeties designatit bi Sister Ceeties Internaitional:[10]

Santo Domingo an a haes twinnin agreements wi the follaein sister ceeties:

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Superficies a nivel de municipios, Oficina Nacional de Estadística
  2. De la Fuente, Santiago (1976). Geografía Dominicana (in Spanish). Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: Editora Colegial Quisqueyana. 
  3. Meining 1986:9
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Dominican Republic - THE FIRST COLONY". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  5. Marley, David (1998). Wars of the Americas. ABC-CLIO. pp. 148–149. ISBN 0874368375, 9780874368376 Check |isbn= value (help). 
  6. "Elections and Events 1791-1849". University of California-San Diego. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  7. Mary Louise Pratt, Imperial Eyes, 2007, p. 70
  8. "City street map of Santo Domingo at www.colonialzone-dr.com". Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  9. "Secretaría de Estado de Cultura". Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Online Directory: Dominican Republic, Caribbean Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI)
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 "Memoria Anual, Agosto 2002-Agosto 2003". Ayuntamiento del Distrito Nacional. pp. 66–67. Retrieved 2008-07-23. 
  12. "Mapa Mundi de las ciudades hermanadas". Ayuntamiento de Madrid. Retrieved 2008-07-23. 
  13. [1]
  14. La Guardia y Santo Domingo, dos ciudades hermanas (Spanish)