San Juan, Puerto Rico

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San Juan
Municipality
San Juan Bautista
The skyline o San Juan featurin the Capitol of Puerto Rico, University of Puerto Rico, Fort San Cristóbal (Puerto Rico), Cathedral of San Juan Bautista, Fort San Felipe del Morro, statue o Juan Ponce de León

Flag

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): La Ciudad Amurallada (The Walled City), Ciudad Capital (Capital City)
Location o San Juan in Puerto Rico
Coordinates: 18°27′00″N 66°04′00″W / 18.45000°N 66.06667°W / 18.45000; -66.06667
Kintra Unitit States
Territory Puerto Rico
Established 1509[1]
Named for John the Baptist
Government
 • Mayor Jorge A. Santini Padilla (PNP)
 • Senatorial dist. 1 - San Juan/Guaynabo
 • House dist. 1,2,3,4,5
Area[2]
 • Municipality 76.93 sq mi (199.2 km2)
 • Land 47.82 sq mi (123.9 km2)
 • Water 29.11 sq mi (75.4 km2)  37.83%
Population (2010)[3]
 • Municipality 395,326
 • Density 8,267/sq mi (3,192/km2)
 • Urban 381,931
 • Metro 2,478,905
 • Racial groups
(2010 Census)[4]
68.0% White
18.6% Black
0.8% American Indian/AN
0.4% Asie
0.0% Native Hawaiian/PI
8.2% Some ither race
4.0% Two or more races
Demonym Sanjuaneros
Time zone AST (nae daylicht savin time) (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 00901–02, 00906–17, 00919–21, 00923–31, 00933–34, 00936, 00939–40
Area code 787, 939
Website www.sanjuan.pr

San Juan (Spainyie pronunciation: [saŋ ˈxwan], Saunt John; English: /ˌsæn ˈhwɑːn/), offeecially Municipio de la Ciudad Capital San Juan Bautista (Municipality o the Caipital Ceety, Saunt John the Baptist), is the caipital an maist populous municipality in Puerto Rico, an unincorporatit territory o the Unitit States. As o the 2010 census, it haes a population o 395,326 makin it the 42nt-lairgest ceety unner the jurisdiction o the Unitit States. San Juan wis foondit bi Spainyie colonists in 1521, who cried it Ciudad de Puerto Rico ("Rich Port Ceety"). Puerto Rico's caipital is the seicont auldest European-established ceety in the Americas, efter Santo Domingo, in the Dominican Republic.[5] Several historical biggins are locatit in San Juan; amang the maist notable are the ceety's umwhile defensive forts, Fort San Felipe del Morro an Fort San Cristóbal, an La Fortaleza, the auldest executive mansion in continuous uise in the Americas.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

San Juan wis foondit in 1521 bi Juan Ponce de León. It wis namit efter San Juan Bautista, or St. John the Baptist (name gien bi Christopher Columbus). San Juan is kent as "La Ciudad Amurallada" an aw. This means the "wawed ceety". San Juan haes mony auld biggins still staundin the day. Mony Spainyie splorers came durin the Age o Discovery an built forts, kirkes, an ither historical biggins. An example o a vera auld fort is "La Fortaleza". It is kent as "Palacio de Santa Catalina" an aw. In the saxteent century, it wis a Spainyie fortress against Caribs. These wur the fowk native tae the Caribbean islands an Central Americae. Anither auld biggin is the auldest residence in Auld San Juan, Casas de los Contrasfuertes (Hoose o Buttresses).

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

San Juan is locatit alang the north-eastren coast o Puerto Rico. It lees sooth o the Atlantic Ocean; north o Caguas an Trujillo Alto; east o an Guaynabo; an wast o Carolina. The ceety occupees an aurie o 76.93 square miles (199.2 km2), o which, 29.11 square miles (75.4 km2) (37.83%) is watter. San Juan's main watter bouks are San Juan Bay an twa natural lagoons, the Condado an San José.[6]

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

San Juan haes a tropical monsoon climate an enjoys an average temperatur o 79.9 °F (26.6 °C) awtho 90 °F (32 °C) or heicher temperaturs are aften felt durin the wetter months o the northren simmer, especially if the winds come frae the sooth. In the winter, temperatures can drop tae aroond 60 °F (16 °C), tho the average winter law is 71 °F (22 °C). The ceulest temperatur iver recordit wis 60 °F (16 °C) on 3 Mairch 1957, an the hottest wis 98 °F (37 °C) on 9 October 1981.[7] Rainfaw is well-distributit throuoot the year, but the months o Januar, Februar, an Mairch are the driest; as Februar averages juist unner 1.95 inches (49.5 mm) o rain, the ceety faws unner the tropical monsoon category.[8] Rainfaw averages 56.35 inches (1,431.3 mm), fawin on a average 198.5 days per year;[9] despite this dampness, the ceety averages nearly 3,000 oors o sunshine per year, or juist ower 2/3 o the possible total.[10]

Climate data for San Juan, Puerto Rico
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °F (°C) 92
(33)
96
(36)
96
(36)
97
(36)
96
(36)
97
(36)
95
(35)
97
(36)
97
(36)
98
(37)
96
(36)
94
(34)
98
(37)
Average heich °F (°C) 83.2
(28.4)
83.7
(28.7)
84.9
(29.4)
86.2
(30.1)
87.5
(30.8)
88.9
(31.6)
88.7
(31.5)
89.2
(31.8)
89.2
(31.8)
88.4
(31.3)
85.9
(29.9)
83.9
(28.8)
86.6
(30.3)
Daily mean °F (°C) 77.6
(25.3)
77.9
(25.5)
78.9
(26.1)
80.3
(26.8)
81.9
(27.7)
83.3
(28.5)
83.4
(28.6)
83.7
(28.7)
83.5
(28.6)
82.6
(28.1)
80.6
(27.0)
78.7
(25.9)
81.03
(27.24)
Average laich °F (°C) 72.0
(22.2)
72.0
(22.2)
72.9
(22.7)
74.4
(23.6)
76.3
(24.6)
77.7
(25.4)
78.1
(25.6)
78.2
(25.7)
77.8
(25.4)
76.9
(24.9)
75.2
(24.0)
73.4
(23.0)
75.4
(24.1)
Record laich °F (°C) 61
(16)
62
(17)
60
(16)
64
(18)
66
(19)
69
(21)
69
(21)
70
(21)
69
(21)
67
(19)
66
(19)
63
(17)
60
(16)
Rainfall inches (mm) 3.76
(95.5)
2.39
(60.7)
1.95
(49.5)
4.68
(118.9)
5.90
(149.9)
4.41
(112)
5.07
(128.8)
5.46
(138.7)
5.77
(146.6)
5.59
(142)
6.35
(161.3)
5.02
(127.5)
56.35
(1,431.3)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.01 in) 17.6 13.9 12.2 13.3 15.7 14.4 18.6 18.5 17.4 17.7 19.6 19.6 198.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 238.7 234.5 282.1 267.0 254.2 258.0 282.1 266.6 234.0 226.3 201.0 217.0 2,961.5
Source no. 1: NOAA (normals, 1981–2010),[9]
Source no. 2: The Weather Channel (records),[7] Hong Kong Observatory[10]

Ceetyscape[eedit | eedit soorce]

Airchitectur[eedit | eedit soorce]

The airchitectur o San Juan is vera diverse, due tae its size an aw the cultural influences receivit durin its existence. The auldest pairt o the ceety, kent as Auld San Juan, maistly featurs the influence Spainyie airchitectur. This pairt o the ceety is comprised bi a netwirk o setted roads uisually surroondit bi auncient, twa-storiet hooses built on masonry. Some colonial structurs hae been restored an serve either as govrenment offices or museums. Some examples are the Ballajá Barracks, which nou serve as museum an heidquairter o several cultural organisations; La Fortaleza, which haes servit as the residence o the Govrenor o Puerto Rico syne the 16t Century; an the Auncient Welfare Asylum, which nou hooses the Institute o Puerto Rican Cultur, amang ithers. Auld San Juan featurs several public squares an aw, like the Plaza de Armas, locatit in front o San Juan City Hall; an cathedrals, like the Cathedral o San Juan Bautista.[11] Auld San Juan is notable for bein pairtly enclosed bi massive waws an fortifications built bi the Spainyie govrenment an aw.

The airchitectur is mair variet in ither destricts o the ceety. The destrict o Santurce featurs a lot o influence frae airt deco, while the destricts o Hato Rey featur mair modren structurs.

Destricts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Destricts o San Juan

Wha is nou kent as Auld San Juan occupeed the wastren end o a rocky islet at the mooth o San Juan Bay. Durin the 20t century, the main population centres surgit well ayond the waws o the auld ceety an ontae Puerto Rico's main island, an mergit wi the existin dounsets east an south o Auld San Juan. Wi the annexation o Río Piedras in 1951, the municipality o San Juan grew fower times its previous size. As a result, the ceety is nou composed o a variety o destricts an neebourheids. San Juan is nou subdividit intae 18 destricts,[12] 16 o which faw athin the umwhile municipality o Río Piedras. Aicht destricts are further subdividit intae sectors, includin twa destricts in the aurie that covered the oreeginal municipality o San Juan. The 18 destricts are:

Auld San Juan[eedit | eedit soorce]

Main article: Auld San Juan
Streets in Auld San Juan

Durin the Spainyie colonial times maist o the urban population resided in what is now known as Auld San Juan. This sector is locatit on the wastren hauf o a sma island cried the Isleta de San Juan, which is connectit tae the mainland bi twa brigs an a causewey. The sma island, which comprises an aurie o 47 square miles (122 km2), hosts the wirkin-class neebourheid o Puerta de Tierra an maist o Puerto Rico's central govrenment biggins an aw, includin the Commonwalth's Capitol. The main central pairt o the ceety is characterisit bi narrae streets made o blue cobblestane an picturesque colonial biggins, some o which date back tae the 16t an 17t century. Sections o the auld ceety are surroondit bi massive waws an several defensive structurs an notable forts. These include the 16t-century Fort San Felipe del Morro an the 17t-century Fort San Cristóbal, baith pairt o San Juan National Historic Site, an the 16t-century El Palacio de Santa Catalina, kent as La Fortaleza an aw, which serves as the govrenor's mansion.[13] Ither biggins o interest predatin the 20t century are the Ayuntamiento or Alcaldía (Ceety Haw), the Diputación Provincial an the Real Intendencia buildings, which currently hoose the Puerto Rico Department of State,[14] the Casa Rosa, the San José Church (1523) an the adjacent Hotel El Convento, the umwhile hoose o the Ponce de León faimily kent as Casa Blanca, the Teatro Tapia, the umwhile Spainyie barracks (nou Museum o Ballajá), La Princesa (umwhile municipal jail, nou heidquairterin the Puerto Rico Tourism Company), an the municipal cemetery o Santa María Magdalena de Pazzi, locatit juist ootside the ceety waws.[15][16][17] The Cathedral o San Juan Bautista (construction began in the 1520s) is locatit in Auld San Juan an aw, an contains the tomb o the Spainyie splorer an dounset foonder Juan Ponce de León.[18] Auld San Juan, kent as the "auld ceety", is the main cultural tourist attraction in Puerto Rico; its bayside is lined bi dock slips for lairge cruise ships.

Ither destricts[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Central Business Destrict as viewed frae Ocean Park

East o Auld San Juan lees the walthy tourist-orientit neebourheid o Condado, which occupees laund that uised tae be awned bi entrepreneur Pablo Ubarri Capetillo, a Spainyie railroad developer an Coont o San José de Santurce unner the Spainyie colonial period. Beaches such as nearbi Ocean Park, popular wi swimmers, surfers an kitesurfers, are foond aw alang the destrict's Atlantic coastline which is the locus o numerous hotels an aw.[19]

Near Condado are twa separate business destricts, Santurce an Miramar. Miramar is mainly a residential aurie risin sooth o the Condado Lagoon. It comprises the umwhile barrio o Miraflores, as well as drained mairskland an landfill ower which wis built San Juan's first airport, the Isla Grande airport, which wis renamit Fernando Luis Ribas Dominicci Airport in honor o Major Fernando Luis Ribas-Dominicci (USAF). Miramar nou hosts the Puerto Rico Convention Center as well as some o San Juan Harbor's cruise ship piers. In 2005 Miramar wis designatit an historical destrict o Puerto Rico.[20]

Santurce, oreeginally namit San Mateo de Cangrejos (Saunt Matthew o the Crabs), was a dounset for freed African slaves durin the early days o the ceety. Efter Pablo Ubarri socht permission tae link San Juan wi Río Piedras proper via steam tramwey in 1878, the time it teuk tae travel atween baith points wur shortened an tharebi stimulatit the colonisation an growthe o the destrict. At the beginnin o the twintiet century an electric trolley wis installed, the tounship wis split intae three pairts, an its main dounset, mergit wi the ceety, wis renamit uisin the Spainyie spellin o Santurtzi (Saunt George in Basque), Ubarri's birthplace in Vizcaya, Spain. The "Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico" (Puerto Rico Museum of Art)[21] an ither important cultural venues are locatit in Santurce.

Sooth o Santurce is Hato Rey, pairt o the umwhile municipality o Río Piedras. Hato Rey wis grazin grund for cattle awned bi the ryal govrenment (hence its name, the Keeng's Herd in Spainyie) as early as the 16th century,[22] and is now considered the financial center of the island. A section of this district is often referred tae as Milla de Oro (actually 0.47 miles / 0.76 kilometres long) due in part to the many banks and businesses located there.[22]

In the soothren pairt o the ceety is the socially diversifee'd commonty o Río Piedras. Foondit in the mid 1850s, Río Piedras wis a separate toun which hostit succar cane plantations an the estates o some o San Juan's walthiest inhabitants (as well as their wirkin class staff). The Spainyie colonial govrenors haed their simmer hame thare on laund an aw which eventually gave wey tae the main campus o the University of Puerto Rico. In 1951 the municipalities o San Juan an Río Piedras wur mergit tae redefine San Juan's current ceety limits. The day Río Piedras comprises the lairgest aurie o the municipality o San Juan.[23] an is hame tae the renouned, tradeetional "Plaza del Mercado" (Río Piedras Mercatplace), the main campus an the Medical Sciences campus o the University of Puerto Rico an the San Juan Botanical Garden.

Sports[eedit | eedit soorce]

Teams based in San Juan hae been notably successful in athletic competition. The Santurce Crabbers wan the National Superior Basketball League championship on 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 an 2003 durin this period bein recognisit as a dynasty. The San Juan Senators an the Santurce Crabbers wur the twa major basebaa teams in the ceety, the championship o the Puerto Rican Professional Baseball League a total o seiventeen times. The Santurce Crabbers are locatit third amang teams wi maire championships in the Caribbean Series, winnin championships in the 1951, 1953, 1955, 1993 an 2000 edeetions o the tournament. The ceety haes been the host o numerous events athin the sports commonty an aw; some examples include:

  • Host o Major League Baseball's 2010 "San Juan Series", three gemmes o the Mets at Marlins held on 28–30 Juin 2010 at Hiram Bithorn Stadium.

The recently built $28-million San Juan Natatorium is beginnin tae attract islandwide an regional swim meets, as well winter trainin bi top-ratit mainland U.S. colleges an universities, includin the United States Military Academy at West Point an the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis.

In July 2007, the San Juan Golf Academy an its gowf drivin range began operatin atop the ceety's umwhile sanitar landfill in Puerto Nuevo an will eventually include the ceety's first an anerlie 9-hole gowf course.

Profeesional teams[eedit | eedit soorce]

Club Sport League Venue
Cangrejeros de Santurce Basebaa Puerto Rico Baseball League Hiram Bithorn Stadium
Cangrejeros de Santurce Basketbaa Baloncesto Superior Nacional José Miguel Agrelot Coliseum or Mario "Quijote" Morales Coliseum in Guaynabo.[31]
Atléticos de San Juan Football/Balompié (Soccer) Puerto Rico Soccer League Hiram Bithorn Stadium.[32]
Academia Quintana Fitbaa/Balompié (Soccer) Puerto Rico Soccer League Hiram Bithorn Stadium.[33]
San Juan United Fitba/Balompié (Soccer) Puerto Rico Soccer League Second Division Sixto Escobar Stadium.[34]

Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

The follaein ceeties hae been identifeed as sister ceeties by Sister Cities International:[35][deid airtin]

Twin towns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Killeen, Texas is twinned wi San Juan, Puerto Rico.[36]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. San Juan, Ciudad Capital. SanJuan.pr. Retrieved 2010-12-22.
  2. "San Juan and its barrios". United States Census Bureau. 2008. Retrieved 2009-10-26. 
  3. "U.S. Census Bureau Delivers Puerto Rico's 2010 Census Population Totals, Including First Look at Race and Hispanic Origin Data for Legislative Redistricting - 2010 Census - Newsroom - U.S. Census Bureau". Census.gov. Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  4. American FactFinder
  5. Magaly Rivera. "San Juan Capital City". Welcome to Puerto Rico. Retrieved 2007-05-02. 
  6. "Puerto Rico Geography". ToPuertoRico.org. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Monthly Averages for San Juan, PR – Temperature and Precipitation". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2011-04-16. 
  8. "Climate information for San Juan Intl. Airport". 
  9. 9.0 9.1 "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 27, 2013. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Climatological Normals of San Juan". Hong Kong Observatory. 2003. Retrieved 2010-05-21. 
  11. Grupo Editorial EPRL. "Viejo San Juan". Enciclopedia Puerto Rico. Retrieved November 4, 2012. 
  12. "San Juan map: Municipo de San Juan". Welcome.topuertorico.org. Retrieved 2012-11-25. 
  13. "Los Castillos del Viejo San Juan" (in Spanish). National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  14. [1][deid airtin]
  15. "History of El Cuartel de Ballajá" (in Spanish). Coquí.Net. Retrieved 2007-05-03. 
  16. E. Ramirez Brau (2005). "Viejo Cementerio de San Juan (graveyard's history)" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2007-01-16. Retrieved 2007-02-03. 
  17. "Teatro Tapia". Yahoo Travel. Retrieved 2007-05-03. 
  18. "Official Web Site of the Cathedral of San Juan Bautista" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2007-05-03. 
  19. "Puerto Rico Cheap Hotels: Condado, Old San Juan, Isla Verde and Ocean Park budget hotels". Hola San Juan. 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  20. "Informese: Miramar designated a historical district". MiramarPR. 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  21. "Official site of the Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico" (in Spanish). Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico. 2006. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 Brenda A. Mari (2004-11-19). "Eatin’ Where The Cows Used To Roam: Hato Rey Dining At Its Best". The Puerto Rico Herald. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  23. "Official site of the University of Puerto Rico" (in Spanish). Universidad de Puerto Rico. 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  24. "Historia de los Juegos Centro Americanos y del Caribe" (in Spanish). Unión Pan Americana de Judo. 1998. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  25. "VIII Pan American Games". LA84 Foundation. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  26. "Caribbean World Series Historical Statistics 2005". Latino Baseball. 2005. Archived from the original on 2007-02-13. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  27. Josh Dubow (2003). "Expos odyssey takes them back to Puerto Rico". SingOnSanDiego.com. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  28. "Official site of the World Baseball Classic". World Baseball Classic. 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-04-08. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  29. "Year by Year Champions". Fiba. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  30. "New Year's revolution Pay-Per-View history". World Wrestling Entertainment. 2005. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  31. "Coliseo de Puerto Rico Official website" (in Spanish). SMG. Retrieved 2007-05-08. 
  32. "Afiliados: Atlético San Juan Fútbol Club" (in Spanish). Federación Puertorriqueña de Fútbol. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  33. "Afiliados: Professional Team Academia Quintana FC" (in Spanish). Federación Puertorriqueña de Fútbol. Retrieved 2010-02-09. 
  34. "Afiliados: San Juan United Soccer Club, Corp." (in Spanish). Federación Puertorriqueña de Fútbol. Retrieved 2010-02-09. 
  35. "Online Directory: Puerto Rico, Caribbean". Sister Cities International. 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-25. 
  36. "Killeen and San Juan, Puerto Rico now "sister cities" - kcentv.com - KCEN HD - Waco, Temple, and Killeen". Centraltexasnow.com. 2010-12-12. Retrieved 2012-11-25.