Perugia

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Perugia
Comune
Comune di Perugia
Piazza IV Novembre
Perugia is located in Italy
Perugia
Perugia
Location o Perugia in Italy
Coordinates: 43°6′44″N 12°23′20″E / 43.11222°N 12.38889°E / 43.11222; 12.38889
Kintra Italy
Region Umbrie
Province Perugia (PG)
Frazioni See list
Government
 • Mayor Wladimiro Boccali (PD)
Area
 • Total 449.92 km2 (173.72 sq mi)
Elevation 493 m (1,617 ft)
Population (30 September 2010)
 • Total 168,066
 • Density 370/km2 (970/sq mi)
Demonym Perugini
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 06100
Diallin code 075
Patron saunt St. Constantius, St. Herculanus, St. Lawrence
Saunt day 29 January
Website Offeecial wabsteid

Perugia (Italian pronunciation: [peˈruːdʒa] ( listen); (Laitin: Perusia) is the caipital ceety o the region o Umbrie in central Italy, crossed bi the river Tiber. The ceety is the caipital o the province o Perugia. Perugia is locatit aboot 164 kilometres (102 miles) north o Roum, an 148 km (92 miles) sooth-east o Florence. It covers a heich hilltop an pairt o the valleys aroond the aurie. The region o Umbrie is bordered bi Tuscany, Lazio an Marche.

The history o Perugia goes back tae the Etruscan period. Perugia wis ane o the main Etruscan ceeties. The ceety is kent as the varsities toun an aw, wi the Varsity o Perugia foondit in 1308 (aboot 34,000 students), the Varsity for Foreigners (5,000 students), an some smawer colleges such the Academy o Feene Airts "Pietro Vannucci" (Italian: Accademia di Belle Arti "Pietro Vannucci") public athenaeum foondit on 1573, the Perugia Varsity Institute o Linguistic Mediation for translators an interpreters, the Muisic Conservatory o Perugia, foondit on 1788, an ithers Institutes. Thare are annual festivals an events: the Eurochocolate Festival (October), the Umbria Jazz Festival (Julie), an the International Jurnalism Festival (in Apryle).

Perugia is a well-kent cultural an airtistic centre o Italy. The famous penter Pietro Vannucci, elknamit Perugino, wis a native o Città della Pieve near Perugia. He decoratit the local Sala del Cambio wi a bonnie series o frescoes; aicht o his picturs can be admired in the Naitional Gallery o Umbrie an aw.[1] Perugino wis the teacher o Raphael,[2] the great Renaissance airtist who producit five pentins in Perugia (the day nae langer in the ceety)[3] an ane fresco.[4] Anither famous penter, Pinturicchio, livit in Perugia. Galeazzo Alessi is the maist famous airchitect frae Perugia. The ceety seembol is the griffin, which can be seen in the form o plaques an statues on biggins aroond the ceety.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Perugia wis a Umbrie dounset[5] but first appears in written history as Perusia, ane o the 12 confederate ceeties o Etrurie;[5] it wis first mentioned in Q. Fabius Pictor's accoont, utilisit bi Livy, o the expedition carriet oot against the Etruscan League bi Fabius Maximus Rullianus[6] in 310 or 309 BC. At that time a thirty-year indutiae (truce) wis greit upon;[7] housomeivver, in 295 Perusia teuk pairt in the Third Samnite War an wis reducit, wi Volsinii an Arretium (Arezzo), tae seek for peace in the follaein year.[8]

In 216 an 205 BC it assistit Roum in the Seicont Punic War but efterwairds it is not mentioned till 41-40 BC, when Lucius Antonius teuk refuge thare, an wis reducit bi Octavian efter a lang siege, an its senators sent tae their daith. A nummer o lead bullets uised bi slingers hae been foond in an aroond the ceety.[9] The ceety wis burnt, we are tauld, wi the exception o the temples o Vulcan an Juno— the massive Etruscan terrace-waws,[10] naturally, can hardly hae suffered at aw— an the toun, wi the territory for a mile roond, wis alloued tae be occupeed bi whoiver chose. It must hae been rebuilt amaist at ance, for several bases for statues exist, inscribit Augusto sacr(um) Perusia restituta; but it did no become a colonia, till 251-253 AD, when it wis resettled as Colonia Vibia Augusta Perusia, unner the emperor C. Vibius Trebonianus Gallus.[11]

It is hardly mentioned except bi the geografers till it wis the anerly ceety in Umbrie tae resist Totila, who captured it an laid the ceety waste in 547, efter a lang siege, apparently efter the ceety's Byzantine garrison evacuatit. Negotiations wi the besiegin forces fell tae the ceety's bishop, Herculanus, as representative o the tounsfowk.[12] Totila is said tae hae ordered the bishop tae be flayed an beheidit. St. Herculanus (Sant'Ercolano) later became the ceety's patron saunt.[13]

In the Lombard period Perugia is spoken o as ane o the principal ceeties o Tuscie.[14] In the 9t century, wi the consent o Charlemagne an Louis the Pious, it passed unner the papes; but bi the 11t century its commune wis assertin itsel, an for mony centuries the ceety continued tae mainteen a unthirlt life, warrin against mony o the neebourin land an ceeties— Foligno, Assisi, Spoleto, Todi, Siena, Arezzo etc. In 1186 Henry VI, rex romanorum an futur emperor, grantit diplomatic recognition tae the consular govrenment o the ceety; efterwaird Pape Innocent III, whose major aim wis tae give state dignity tae the dominions hain been constitutin the patrimony o St. Peter, acknawledgit the validity o the imperial statement an recognisit the established ceevic practices as haein the force o law.[15]

Medieval aqueduct

On various occasions the papes foond asylum frae the tumults o Roum athin its waws, an it wis the meetin-place o five conclaves (Perugia Papacy), includin those that electit Honorius III (1216), Clement IV (1285), Celestine V (1294), an Clement V (1305); the papal presence wis characterisit bi a pacificatory rule atween the internal rivalries.[15] But Perugia haed nae mind simply tae subserve the papal interests an niver acceptit papal sovereignty: the ceety uised tae exercise a jurisdiction ower the members o the clergy, mairower in 1282 Perugia wis excommunicatit due tae a new militar affensive against the Ghibellines regardless o a papal prohibition. In the ither haund side bi side wi the 13t century bronze griffin o Perugia abuin the door o the Palazzo dei Priori staunds, as a Guelphic emblem, the lion, an Perugia remained lyal for the maist pairt tae the Guelph pairty in the struggles o Guelphs an Ghibellines. Housomeivver this dominant tendency wis rather a anti-Germanic an Italian poleetical strategy.[15] The Angevin presence in Italy appeared tae affer a coonterpoise tae papal pouers: in 1319 Perugia declared the Angevin Saunt Louis o Toulouse "Protector o the ceety's sovereignty an o the Palazzo o its Priors"[16] an set his figur amang the ither patron saunts abuin the rich doorwey o the Palazzo dei Priori. Midwey throu the 14t century Bartholus o Sassoferrato, who wis a renouned jurist, assertit that Perugia wis dependent upon neither imperial nor papal support.[15] In 1347, at the time o Rienzi's unfortunate enterprise in revivin the Roman republic, Perugia sent ten ambassadors tae pay him honour; an, when papal legates socht tae coerce it bi foreign sodgers, or tae exact contributions, they met wi vigorous resistance, which broke intae open warfare wi Pape Urban V in 1369; in 1370 the noble pairty reached a greement signin the treaty o Bologna an Perugia wis forcit tae accept a papal legate; housomeivver the vicar-general o the Papal States, Gérard du Puy, Abbot o Marmoutier an nephew o Gregory IX,[17] wis expelled bi a popular uprisin in 1375, an his fortification o Porta Sole wis razit tae the grund.[18]

Ceevic peace wis constantly disturbit in the 14t century bi struggles atween the pairty representin the fowk (Raspanti) an the nobles (Beccherini). Efter the assassination in 1398 of Biordo Michelotti, who haed made hissel laird o Perugia, the ceety became a pawn in the Italian Wars, passin tae Gian Galeazzo Visconti (1400), tae Pape Boniface IX (1403), an tae Ladislaus o Naples (1408–14) afore it settled intae a period o soond govrenance unner the Signoria o the condottiero Braccio da Montone (1416–24), who reached a concordance wi the Papacy. Follaein mutual atrocities o the Oddi an the Baglioni faimilies, pouer wis at last concentratit in the Baglioni, who, tho they haed nae legal position, defeed aw ither authority, tho their bloody internal squabbles culminatit in a massacre, 14 Julie 1500.[18] Gian Paolo Baglioni wis lured tae Roum in 1520 an beheidit at the orders o Leo X; an in 1540 Rodolfo, who haed slain a papal legate, wis defeatit bi Pier Luigi Farnese, an the ceety, captured an plundered bi his sodgery, wis deprivit o its preevileges. A citadel kent as the Rocca Paolina (it), efter the name o Pape Paul III, wis built, tae designs o Antonio da Sangallo the Younger "ad coercendam Perusinorum audaciam."[19]

In the Rocca Paolina (it)

In 1797, the ceety wis conquered bi French troops. On 4 Februar 1798, the Tiberina Republic wis formit, wi Perugia as caipital, an the French tricolour as banner. In 1799, the Tiberina Republic mergit tae the Roman Republic.

In 1832, 1838 an 1854, Perugia wis hit bi yirdquauks. Follaein the collapse o the Roman republic o 1848-49, when the Rocca wis in pairt demolished,[18] it wis seizit in Mey 1849 bi the Austrians. In Juin 1859 the inhabitants rebelled against the temporal authority o the Pape an established a proveesional govrenment, but the insurrection wis quashed bloodily bi Pius IX's troops.[20] In September 1860 the ceety wis unitit feenally, alang wi the rest o Umbrie, as pairt o the Kinrick o Italy.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Palazzo dei Priori: the centre o communal govrenment

Perugia haes become famous for chocolate, maistly acause o a single firm, Perugina, whose Baci (kisses) are widely exportit.[21] Perugian chocolate is vera popular in Italy. The company's plant locatit in San Sisto (Perugia) is the lairgest o Nestlé's nine steids in Italy.[22]

The ceety hosts a chocolate festival ivery October.[23] The suburbs host a lairge nummer o SMEs.

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ceeties' distances frae Perugia: Assisi 19 kilometres (12 miles), Siena 102 km (63 miles), Florence 145 km (90 miles), Roum 164 km (102 miles).

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Even tho Perugia is locatit in the central pairt o Italy, the ceety experiences a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate clessification Cfa) similar tae hintle o Northren Italy. Climate in this aurie haes mild differences atween heichs an laws, an thare is adequate rainfall year roond.[24]

Climate data for Perugia
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average heich °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
10.7
(51.3)
13.7
(56.7)
16.9
(62.4)
22.0
(71.6)
25.9
(78.6)
29.8
(85.6)
29.2
(84.6)
25.6
(78.1)
19.9
(67.8)
13.4
(56.1)
9.0
(48.2)
18.7
(65.7)
Average laich °C (°F) 0.2
(32.4)
1.5
(34.7)
2.8
(37.0)
5.2
(41.4)
9.3
(48.7)
12.4
(54.3)
14.9
(58.8)
15.1
(59.2)
12.9
(55.2)
8.8
(47.8)
4.2
(39.6)
1.6
(34.9)
7.4
(45.3)
Precipitation mm (inches) 58
(2.3)
69
(2.7)
61
(2.4)
71
(2.8)
74
(2.9)
71
(2.8)
46
(1.8)
61
(2.4)
69
(2.7)
76
(3.0)
94
(3.7)
71
(2.8)
820
(32.3)
Source: Intellicast [25]

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Houses in Perugia.

In 2007, thare wur 163,287 people residin in Perugia, locatit in the province o Perugia, Umbrie, o whom 47.7% wur male an 52.3% wur female. Minors (childer ages 18 an younger) totalled 16.41 percent o the population compared tae pensioners who nummer 21.51 percent. This compares wi the Italian average o 18.06 percent (minors) an 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age o Perugia residents is 44 compared tae the Italian average o 42. In the five years atween 2002 an 2007, the population o Perugia grew bi 7.86 percent, while Italy as a whole grew bi 3.85 percent.[26]

As o 2006, 90.84% o the population wis Italian. The lairgest immigrant group came frae ither European kintras (pairticularly frae Albanie an Romanie): 3.93%, the Americas: 2.01%, an North African: 1.3%. The majority o inhabitants are Roman Catholic.

Eddication[eedit | eedit soorce]

Perugia griffin, in a medieval Laitin document.

Perugia the day hosts twa main varsities, the auncient Università degli Studi (Varsity o Perugia) an the Foreigners Varsity (Università per Stranieri). Stranieri serves as a Italian leid an cultur schuil for students frae aw ower the warld.[27] Ither eddicational institutions are the Perugia Fene Airts Academy "Pietro Vannucci" (foondit in 1573), the Perugia Muisic Conservatory for the study o clessical muisic, an the RAI Public Broadcastin Schuil o Radio-Televeesion Jurnalism.[28] The ceety is host tae the Umbra Institute an aw, a accreditit varsity program for American students studyin abroad.[29] The Università dei Sapori (Vasity o Tastes), a naitional centre for Vocational Eddication an Trainin in Fuid, is locatit in the ceety as well.[30]

Frazioni[eedit | eedit soorce]

The comune includes the frazioni o Bagnaia, Bosco, Capanne, Casa del Diavolo, Castel del Piano, Cenerente, Civitella Benazzone, Civitella d'Arna, Collestrada, Colle Umberto I, Cordigliano, Colombella, Farneto, Ferro di Cavallo, Fontignano, Fratticiola Selvatica, La Bruna, La Cinella, Lacugnano, Lidarno, Migiana di Monte Tezio, Monte Bagnolo, Monte Corneo, Montelaguardia, Monte Petriolo, Mugnano, Olmo, Parlesca, Pianello, Piccione, Pila, Pilonico Materno, Ponte della Pietra, Poggio delle Corti, Ponte Felcino, Ponte Pattoli, Ponte Rio, Ponte San Giovanni, Ponte Valleceppi, Prepo, Pretola, Ramazzano-Le Pulci, Rancolfo, Ripa, Sant'Andrea delle Fratte, Sant'Egidio, Sant'Enea, San Fortunato della Collina, San Giovanni del Pantano, Sant'Andrea d'Agliano, Santa Lucia, San Marco, Santa Maria Rossa, San Martino dei Colli, San Martino in Campo, San Martino in Colle, San Sisto, Solfagnano, Villa Pitignano. Ither localities are Boneggio, Canneto, Colle della Trinità, Monte Pulito, Montevile, Pieve di Campo, Montemalbe an Monte Morcino.

Collestrada, in the territory o the suburb o Ponte San Giovanni, saw a battle atween the inhabitants o Perugia an Assisi in 1202.

Main sichts[eedit | eedit soorce]

Kirks[eedit | eedit soorce]

Fontana Maggiore
  • The Cathedral o S. Lorenzo.
  • Kirk an abbey o San Pietro (late 16t century).
  • Basilica o San Domenico (begun in 1394 an feenished in 1458). The Basilica is locatit whaur, in the Middle Ages, the mercat an the horse fair wur held, an whaur the Dominicans settled in 1234. The Basilica exterior is believit tae be designed bi Giovanni Pisano while its interior decorations wur redesigned bi Carlo Maderno. The massive belfry wis pairtially cut aroond mid-16t century. The Basilica hooses impressive examples o Umbrie airt, includin the precious tomb o Pape Benedict XI an a firthen choir frae the Renaissance period.
  • The Sant'Angelo or o San Michele Arcangelo Kirk frae the (5t-6t centuries). This kirk haes 16 antique columns an is a stunnin example o Palaeo-Christian airt wi a central plan reminiscent o Santo Stefano Rotondo in Roum.
  • San Bernardino Kirk (wi facade bi Agostino di Duccio).
  • Sant' Ercolano Kirk frae the early 14t century. This kirk resembles a polygonal touer. This kirk ance haed twa floors. The upper floor wis demolished when the Rocca Paolina wus built. It includes Baroque decorations commissioned frae 1607. The main altar haes a sarcophagus foond in 1609.
  • Kirk o Sant'Antonio da Padova.
  • Kirk o Santa Giuliana, heir o a female monastery foondit in 1253. In its later years, the kirk gained a reputation for dissoluteness. Later, the French turned the kirk intae a granary. Nou, the kirk is a militar hospital. The kirk, wi a single nave, anerly bears traces o 13t century frescoes, which probably uised tae cover aw o the waws. The cloister is a notewirthy example o mid-14t century Cistercian airchitectur frae Matteo Gattaponi (it). The upper pairt o the campanile is frae the 13t century.
  • The Templar kirk o San Bevignate.

Secular biggins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Antiquities[eedit | eedit soorce]

Etruscan Airch
  • the Ipogeo dei Volumni (Hypogeum o the Volumnus faimily), an Etruscan chamber tomb
  • an Etruscan Well (Pozzo Etrusco).
  • Naitional Museum o Umbrie Airchaeologie, whaur ane o the langest inscription in Etruscan is conservit, the so-cried Cippus perusinus.
  • Etruscan Airch (kent as Porta Augusta an aw), a Etruscan gate wi Roman elements.

Modren airchitectur[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Centro Direzionale (1982–1986), a admeenistration ceevic centre awned bi the Umbrie Region. The biggin wis designed bi the Pritzker Airchitectur prizewinner Aldo Rossi.[32]

Airt[eedit | eedit soorce]

Pietro Perugino, sel-portrait

Perugia haes haed a rich tradition o art an airtists. The Heich Renaissance penter Pietro Perugino creatit some o his maisterpieces in the Perugia aurie. The ither Heich Resaissance maister Raphael wis active in Perugia an an an pentit his famous Oddi Altar thare in 1502-04.

The day, the Galleria Nazionale dell'Umbria in Perugia hooses a nummer o masterpieces, including the Madonna wi Bairn an sax Angels, which represents the Renaissance Marian airt o Duccio. An the private Airt Collection o the Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Perugia haes two separate locations.

The Collegio del Cambio is an extremely well preservit representation o a Renaissance biggin an hooses a magnificent Pietro Perugino fresco.[33] The newly re-opened Academy o Fine Airts haes a smaw but impressive plaster casts gallery an Perugie pentins an drawins frae the 16t century on.[34]

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

A street jazz band in Perugia.jpg
  Umbria Jazz Festival 2008
Teatro Pavone.jpg
  International Journalism Festival 2009
Eurochocolate 2008.jpg
    Eurochocolate 2008

Sport[eedit | eedit soorce]

A.C. Perugia Calcio play at the 28,000-seater Stadio Renato Curi.

A.C. Perugia Calcio are the main fitbaa club in the ceety, currently playin in the third-tier Lega Pro Prima Divisione, Group B. The club play at the 28,000-seater Stadio Renato Curi, namit efter a umwhile player who dee'd durin a match. Frae 1983 tae 2001, the stadium held fower matches for the Italy naitional fitbaa team.[36]

Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]

A electric tramwey operatit in Perugia frae 1901 till 1940. It wis decommissioned in favour o buses, an syne 1943 trolley buses – the latter wur in service till 1975.

Twa elevators wur established syne 1971:

  • Mercato Coperto (Pairkin) – Terrazza Mercato Coperto
  • Galleria Kennedy – Mercato Coperto (Pincetto)

This wis follaeed bi public escalators:

  • Rocca Paolina: Piazza Partigiani - Piazza Italia (1983)
  • Cupa-Pellini: Piazzale della Cupa - Via dei Priori (1989)
  • Piazzale Europa - Piazzale Bellucci (1993)
  • Piazzale Bellucci - Corso Cavour (1993)
  • Minimetrò: Pincetto - Piazza Matteotti (2008)

Syne 1971 Perugia haes taken several measures against caur traffec, when the first traffec restriction zone wis implementit. These zones wur expandit ower time an at certain oors o the day drivin is forbidden in the ceety centre. Lairge pairkin lots are providit in the lawer toun, frae whaur the ceety can be reached via public transport.

Syne 2008, an automatit fowk muiver cried Minimetrò haes been in operation an aw. It haes seiven stations, wi ane terminal at a lairge pairkin lot, an the ither in the ceety centre.[37]

Santa Anna railwey station.

Perugia railwey station, kent as Perugia Fontivegge an aw, wis opened in 1866. It forms pairt o the Foligno–Terontola railway, which links Florence wi Roum an aw. The station is situatit at Piazza Vittorio Veneto, in the hivily populatit destrict o Fontivegge, aboot 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) soothwast o the ceety centre.

Perugia San Francesco d'Assisi – Umbria Internaitional Airport is locatit 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) ootside the ceety.

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Perugia haes twin an sister ceety greements wi the follaein ceeties:[38]

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. cf. Perugia, Raffaele Rossi, Pietro Scarpellini, 1993 (Vol. 1, pg. 337, 344)
  2. "...it appears most probable that he did not enter Perugino's studio till the end of 1499, as during the four or five years before that Perugino was mostly absent from his native city. The so-called Sketch Book of Raphael in the academy of Venice contains studies apparently from the cartoons of some of Perugino's Sistine frescoes, possibly done as practice in drawing." (Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition).
    See also "Perugia". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2003
  3. The precise role of Raphael in Perugino's works, executed during his apprenticeship, is disputed by scholars. The independent works depicted in Perugia are: the Ansidei Madonna (taken by the French under the terms of the Treaty of Tolentino in 1798), the Deposition by Raphael (Pala Baglioni, this masterpiece was expropriated by Scipione Borghese in 1608, cf. 'The Guardian, October 19, 2004), the Madonna and Child Enthroned with Saints, by Raphael (formerly located in the convent of St Anthony of Padua cf.The Colonna Altarpiece review at Art History), the Connestabile Madonna (this picture left Perugia in 1871, when Count Connestabile sold it to the emperor of Russia for £13,200, cf. Encyclopædia Britannica), the Oddi altar by Raphael (requisitioned by the French in 1798)
  4. 4.0 4.1 "...some studies for the figure of St. John the Martyr which Raphael used in 1505 in his great fresco in the Church of San Severo at Perugia." (The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci (X)
  5. 5.0 5.1 Perugia (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved May 21, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  6. "How much of his glory is due to his kinsman, Fabius Pictor, the first historian of Rome, or to the family legends, which found in Etruria the most fitting scene for the exploits of the great Fabian house, we cannot tell" (Walter W. How and Henry Devenish Leigh, A History of Rome to the Death of Caesar London: Longmans, Green 1898:112).
  7. Livy ix.37.12).
  8. Livy ix.30.1-2, 31.1-3; indutiae with Volsinii, Perusia and Arretium, ix.37.4-5.
  9. cf. Corpus Inscr. Lat. xi. 1212
  10. Etruscan town walls.
  11. Latin inscriptions at two of the preserved Etruscan gates.
  12. Patrick Amory, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554 pp185-86, referring to Perugia in passing, notes the increasingly localized role assumed since the mid-5th century by the bishops.
  13. Procopius, Bellum Gothicum, 3 (7).2.35.2, characteristically does not mention the incident, reported in Gregory the Great, Dialogues, 13, who imagines a seven-year siege (i.e. since 540, before the accession of Baduila) and dramatically reports Herculanus' grotesque murder.
  14. Procopius of Caesarea, Gothic Wars I,16 and III,35.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 cf. Perugia, Raffaele Rossi, Attilio Bartoli Angeli, Roberta Sottani 1993 (Vol. 1, pp. 120-140)
  16. "Avvocato della Signoria cittadina e del Palazzo dei suoi Priori"
  17. Made a cardinal bi his uncle, 20 Dizember 1375 (Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: 14th century)
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 cf. Touring Club Italiano, Guida d'Italia: Umbria (1966)
  19. "in order to bring to heel the audacious Perugini".
  20. cf. Chicago Tribune, Jul 18, 1859 and The outrage of the American witnesses in Perugia, Chicago Tribune, Jul 21, 1859
  21. Nestlè-Perugina produced in 2005 about 1.5 million Baci a day. Each October, Perugia has an annual chocolate festival called EuroChocolate. In Italy, right in the kisser, The Washington Post, May 29, 2005
  22. "European Industrial Relations Observatory, April 9, 2003". Eurofound.europa.eu. Retrieved 2013-06-08. 
  23. By Lehndorff, John; 471 words. "Thousands converge on historic city to celebrate everything chocolate Associated Press, October 21, 2002". Highbeam.com. Retrieved 2013-06-08. 
  24. Climate Summary for Perugia
  25. "Perugia historic weather averages in Italy". Intellicast. Retrieved 4 June 2009. 
  26. "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  27. BBC students diaries March 13, 2007
  28. See Perugia, University Town and La Repubblica Università - Italian Journalism recognized schools (Italian)
  29. "The Umbra Institute". 
  30. See the institution educational purposes at the Università dei Sapori official site
  31. A short break in Perugia The Independent - London, June 6, 1999
  32. The Centro Direzionale is mentioned in the Aldo Rossi personal page at the Pritzker Prize official website
  33. "NY Times". Travel.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2010-04-20. 
  34. "The Academy of Fine Arts of Perugia". inperugia.com. Retrieved 2013-01-20. 
  35. The Umbrie muisical event is hostit in Perugia syne the end o Warld War II NYT, October 18, 1953
  36. http://eu-football.info/_venue.php?id=826
  37. "Perugia MiniMetro on". Urbanrail.net. 2008-01-29. Retrieved 2010-04-20. 
  38. Perugia Official site - Relazioni Internazionali (Italian)
  39. "Association of twinnings and international relations of Aix-en-Provence". Aix-jumelages.com. Retrieved 2010-04-20. 
  40. Mairie of Aix-en-Provence - Twinnings and partnerships[deid airtin]
  41. "Partner (Twin) towns of Bratislava". Bratislava-City.sk. Archived from the original on 2013-07-28. Retrieved 2013-08-05. 
  42. "Die Partnerstädte der Landeshauptstadt Potsdam". www.potsdam.de (in German). Retrieved 24 June 2010. 

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • Conestabile della Staffa, Giancarlo (1855). I Monumenti di Perugia etrusca e romana. Perugia. 
  • Gallenga Stuart, Romeo Adriano (1905). Perugia. Bergamo: Istituto italiano d'arti grafiche Editore. 
  • Heywood, William (1910). A history of Perugia. London: Methuen & Co. 
  • Mancini, Francesco Federico; Giovanna Casagrande. Perugia - guida storico-artistica. Perugia: Italcards. ISBN 88-7193-746-5. 
  • Rubin Blanshei, Sarah (1976). Perugia, 1260-1340: Conflict and Change in a Medieval Italian Urban Society. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. ISBN 0-87169-662-2. 
  • Rossi, Raffaele; and others (1993). Perugia. Milan: Elio Sellino Editore. ISBN 88-236-0051-0. 
  • Symonds, Margaret; Lina Duff Gordon (1898). The Story of Perugia. London: J.M. Dent & Co. ISBN 0-8115-0865-X. 
  • Zappelli, Maria Rita (2013). Zachary Nowak, ed. Home Street Home: Perugia’s History Told Through its Streets. Perugia: Morlacchi Editore. ISBN 978-88-6074-548-4. 

Further readin[eedit | eedit soorce]

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]