Shymkent

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Shymkent
Шымкент
Shymkent is located in Kazakhstan
Shymkent
Shymkent
Location in Kazakhstan
Coordinates: 42°19′0″N 69°35′45″E / 42.31667°N 69.59583°E / 42.31667; 69.59583
Kintra Kazakhstan
Province Sooth Kazakhstan Province
Foondit 12t century
Government
 • Akim (mayor) Kayrat Moldaseyitov
Area
 • Total 347 km2 (134 sq mi)
Elevation 506 m (1,660 ft)
Population (2011)Estimation[1]
 • Total 637,800
Time zone BTT (UTC+6)
Postal code 160000

Shymkent (Kazakh: Шымкент / Şımkent), formerly kent as Chimkent (Roushie: Чимкент‎) till 1993, is the caipital ceety o Sooth Kazakhstan Province, the maist populatit region in Kazakhstan. It is the third maist populous ceety in Kazakhstan behind Almaty an Astana wi a population o 629,600 (2011-02-01).[1] A major railroad junction on the Turkestan-Siberie Railway, the ceety is an aa a notable cultural centre, wi an internaitional airport. It is situatit 690 km wast o Almaty an 120 km tae the north o Tashkent, Uzbekistan. 603,499 (2009 Census results);[2] 423,902 (1999 Census results).[2]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Shymkent wis foondit in the 12t century[3] as a caravanserai tae protect the Silk Road toun o Sayram, 10 km tae the east. Shymkent grew as a mercat center for trade atween Turkic nomads an the settled Sogdians. It wis destroyed several times: bi Genghis Khan, soldiers frae the soothren Khanates, an bi nomad attacks. Ance pairt o the Khanate o Kokand, it acame pairt o the Emirate o Bukhara in 1810 an wis then annexed bi the Roushie Empire in 1864. It wis renamed Chernyaev in 1914 an renamed Shymkent in 1924. Follaein the Roushie conquest, Shymkent wis a ceety o trade atween nomadic Turks an sedentary Turks, an wis famous for its kumis.[4]

Thare wis a gulag locatit near Shymkent, an mony Roushie-speakin fowk came tae the aurie via imprisonment.[5]

The name Shymkent comes frae twa wirds: shym meanin "turf, an kent meanin "ceety". Shymkent an Chimkent hae identical translations.

Efter Kazakhstan gained unthirldom, the ceety wis renamed Shymkent in 1993 as pairt o the govrenment’s campaign tae apply Kazakh names tae ceeties. The formal spellin o Шымкент (Shymkent) as codified in Kazakhstan's Constitution goes against the Roushie spellin rules o never havin the letter "ы" follae the letter "ш". As a result, the new name Шымкент (Shymkent) is uised anly in Kazakhstan, while Roushie an some ither kintras uisin Roushie leid continue tae uise the oreeginal spellin Чимкент (Chimkent).

Geografie[eedit | eedit soorce]

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Shymkent featurs a borderline continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dsa). Shymkent featurs het, relatively dry simmers an cauld winters. Houever, winters here are noticeably wairmer than in ceeties such as Almaty an Astana, wi the mean monthly temperatur durin the ceety’s cauldest month (Januar) averagin aroond -1 C. Shymkent averages juist unner 600 mm o precipitation annually.

Climate data for Shymkent (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 22.2
(72.0)
24.5
(76.1)
30.7
(87.3)
33.0
(91.4)
37.8
(100.0)
43.0
(109.4)
44.3
(111.7)
42.2
(108.0)
39.2
(102.6)
34.4
(93.9)
30.5
(86.9)
25.4
(77.7)
30.7
(87.3)
Average heich °C (°F) 4.1
(39.4)
6.6
(43.9)
12.9
(55.2)
19.2
(66.6)
25.1
(77.2)
30.0
(86.0)
32.7
(90.9)
32.1
(89.8)
27.2
(81.0)
18.8
(65.8)
12.0
(53.6)
6.0
(42.8)
18.89
(66.01)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.7
(30.7)
1.6
(34.9)
7.6
(45.7)
13.6
(56.5)
19.1
(66.4)
23.7
(74.7)
26.3
(79.3)
25.3
(77.5)
19.9
(67.8)
12.3
(54.1)
6.4
(43.5)
0.9
(33.6)
13.00
(55.40)
Average laich °C (°F) −4.8
(23.4)
−2.7
(27.1)
3.0
(37.4)
8.3
(46.9)
12.9
(55.2)
16.7
(62.1)
19.1
(66.4)
17.9
(64.2)
12.8
(55.0)
6.6
(43.9)
1.7
(35.1)
−3.1
(26.4)
7.37
(45.26)
Record laich °C (°F) −31.1
(−24.0)
−28.9
(−20.0)
−23.9
(−11.0)
−5
(23.0)
−2.8
(27.0)
5.5
(41.9)
7.8
(46.0)
7.0
(44.6)
−1.1
(30.0)
−12
(10.4)
−30
(−22.0)
−26.1
(−15.0)
−31.1
(−24.0)
Precipitation mm (inches) 73
(2.87)
70
(2.76)
83
(3.27)
69
(2.72)
56
(2.2)
16
(0.63)
12
(0.47)
4
(0.16)
10
(0.39)
41
(1.61)
67
(2.64)
75
(2.95)
576
(22.68)
humidity 75 73 67 63 56 44 39 34 39 55 69 75 57
Source: [6]

Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ceety Kintra Year
Stevenage Unitit Kinrick Unitit Kinrick
İzmir Turkey Turkey
Adana Turkey Turkey
Mogilev Belaroushie Belaroushie
Grosseto Italy Italy
Pattaya Thailand Thailand
Khujand Tajikistan Tajikistan

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Estimation 2011-11-21 (in rus.)
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Население Республики Казахстан" (in Russian). Департамент социальной и демографической статистики. Retrieved 3 June 2012. 
  3. Peoples of central Asia. By Lawrence Krader. Published by Indiana University, 1971
  4. Through Russian central Asia. By Stephen Graham. Published by The Macmillan Company, 1916
  5. The Gulag Archipelago, 1918-1956: an experiment in literary investigation. By Aleksandr I. Solzhenitsyn, H. T. Willetts, Thomas P. Whitney. Published by Westview Press, 1997
  6. "Погода и Климат". Pogoda.ru.net. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]