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Frank Lloyd Wright

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Frank Lloyd Wright
BornFrank Lincoln Wright
8 Juin 1867(1867-06-08)
Richland Center, Wisconsin[1]
Dee'd9 Apryle 1959(1959-04-09) (aged 91)
Phoenix, Arizona[2]
Cause o daith
EddicationMadison High School
Alma materUniversity of Wisconsin-Madison
Hame tounChicago, Illinois
Hicht5' 7" (1.70 m)
Hauf-marrae(s)Catherine Wright (m. 1889–1922),
Maude Wright (m. 1923–1927),
Olgivanna Wright (m. 1928–1959)
BairnsLloyd Wright · John Lloyd Wright · Catherine Baxter · Svetlana Milanoff · Catherine Wright · Frances Wright · David Wright · Iovanna Wright
PawrentsWilliam Carey Wright
Anna Lloyd Jones

Frank Lloyd Wright (Frank Lincoln Wright; 8 Juin, 18679 Aprile 1959) wis a famous American airchitect frae the early 20t centurie. He designit aw kinds o biggins includin banks, holiday resorts, office biggins, kirks, a synagogue, a gas station, a beer gairden an an airt museum.[4]

Wright designit mair nor 1,000 structurs an completit 532 works. Wright believit in designin structurs which wur in peace wi humanity an its environment. He callit his belief organic airchitectur.[5] He uised this technique for his design for Fallingwater (1935), which haes been cried "the best aw-time wirk o American airchitectur".[5] Wright wis a leader o the Prairie School movement o airchitectur an developit the image o the Usonian home, his ane-o-a-kynd veesion for urban plannin in the Unitit States.

He began an American style of buildin design an is said tae be ane o the greatest airchitects o the twentiet centurie.[6]

Wright wis born in Richland Center, Wisconsin on 8 Juin 1867 tae a fermin faimily.[7]

His work includes oreeginal an creative ensaumples o mony biggin types. Wright an aa designit mony o the interior elements o his biggins, sic as the furnitur an stained glass. Wright authorit 20 beuks an mony airticles an wis a popular lecturer in the Unitit States an in Europe.

His colorful personal life eften made heidlines, maist notably for the 1914 fire an murders at his Taliesin studio. Already well-kent durin his lifetime, Wright wis recognizit in 1991 bi the American Institute of Architects as "the greatest American airchitect o aw time."[5]

Wright deit on 9 Aprile, 1959 in Phoenix, Arizona frae surgical complications.[8] He wis 91 year auld.[8]

Early life[eedit | eedit soorce]

Frank Lloyd Wright wis born in the fermin toun o Richland Center, Wisconsin, Unitit States, on 8 Juin 1867.[7] He wis born Frank Lincoln Wright.[9] His faither, William Carey Wright (1825–1904)[10], wis a locally admirit speaker, muisic teacher, whiles a lawyer, an meenister. William Wright haed met an marriit Anna Lloyd Jones (1838/39 – 1923)[10], a coonty schuil teacher o Welsh strynd.

Early career[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wright's first well-kent biggin, the Larkin Admeenistration Buildin

Wright did nae get alang well wi ether draftsmen. He wrote that several violent events happenit atween them durin the first years o his apprenticeship. Efterwards mony ither draftsmen shawed very little respect for his employees as well.[11] In spite o this, "Sullivan took [Wright] under his wing and gave him great design responsibility." As an act o respect, Wright wad later refer tae Sullivan as Lieber Meister (German for "Dear Master").[12] Wright an aa formit a bond wi office foreman Paul Mueller. Wright wad later engage Mueller tae big several o his public an commercial biggins atween 1903 an 1923.[13]

As Wright began tae wirk on residential projects for Adler & Sullivan.[14] Wright designit his hooses on his ain time. Sullivan knew nothin o Wright's wirks till 1893, whan he recognizit that ane o the hooses wis a Frank Lloyd Wright design.[14] This parteecular hoose, biggit for Allison Harlan, wis anly blocks away frae Sullivan's tounhoose in the Chicago commonty o Kenwood.[14]

Famous buildins[eedit | eedit soorce]

Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater, the hoose ower the watterfaw.

Fallingwater[eedit | eedit soorce]

Frank Lloyd Wright designit a simmer-hoose in 1935 for the Kaufmann faimily ower a watterfaw in Pennsylvania. He callit the hoose "Fallingwater". Some fowk say it is the maist famous private home in the warld.[15]

The hoose actually sits law in the valley ower the stream, but leuks dramatic frae further dounstream.[16] It haes lairge terraces, an some o them stick straucht oot an hang ower the watterfaw or the stream. Thare are windaes an glass doors, wi anly narrow steel supports atween them, wrappin aw the wey aroond the livin ruim.

Thare are an aa windaes gangin aw the wey frae the fluir tae the ceilin in aw three stories o the touer.[5][16]

Maist o the hoose is made frae stane. Thare are strang horizontal an vertical lines in the design o the hoose. It resembles the horizontal an vertical lines in the rock formations an ither naitural featurs.[16] The watterfaw can be heard everywhaur in the hoose. Wright wantit thare tae be a close connection atween inside an ootside, an for the hoose itself tae be naitural.[17]

In 1991, members o the American Institute of Architects named the Fallingwater hoose the "best aw-time work o American airchitectur".[18]

Robie House[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Robie House

Ane famous hoose wis cried the Robie House. It haed a maze lik layoot an geometric stainit glass windows.[19] The Robie House wis a unique hoose wi odd shapes, colours an form. He finishit makin it in 1910, as a hoose for childer. In fact, mony childer livit an playit in that hoose wi thair faimilies up till 1926 whan it wis closed for livin in, an closit tae the public. Mony times, it wis planned tae be destroyit. Houiver, twice, Wright savit his hoose frae destruction acause o the reasons he biggit it an aw the memories o it that he lovit so much. It is nou bein restorit at a cost o $10 million.[20]

Johnson Wax Headquarters[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Johnson Wax Headquarters

Anither famous biggin bi Wright wis cried the Johnson Wax Headquarters.[21] The biggin haes Wright's idea o the streamlinit Art Moderne style popular in the 1930s. In a break wi Wright's earlier Prairie School structurs, the biggin featurs mony circular forms an needit ower 200 different curvit "Cherokee red" bricks tae creaut the sweepin curves o the inside an ootside.[21]

The mortar atween the bricks wis creatit in tradeetional Wright-style tae gie the horizontality o the biggin.[21] The warm, reddish hue o the bricks wis usit in the polishit concrete fluir as well.[21] The white stane trim an white columns creaut a slicht yet strikin difference. Aw o the furnitur, creatit bi Steelcase, wis designit for the biggin bi Wright an it mirrorit mony o the biggin's unique design featurs.[21]

The entrance is in the structur, enterin the biggin on ane side wi a coverit carport on the ither.[21] The carport is supportit bi short versions o the steel-reinforcit (tree-lik) concrete columns that appear in the Great Workroom.[21]

The Illinois[eedit | eedit soorce]

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum

Wright proponed tae big a skyscraper callit The Illinois that wad be the hicht o a distance o a mile.[22] It wis intendit tae be constructit in Chicago, Illinois. It coud hae includit 528 stories, wi a gross aurie o 18,460,000 square feet (1,715,000 m2).[22] Wright statit that thare wad be parkin for 15,000 caurs an 150 helicopters.[22]

Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York Ceety. Wright workit on this project for 16 years (1943–1959) an is probably his maist recognizit masterpiece.[23] The biggin is locatit in Fifth Avenue. Its interior is seemilar tae the inside o a seashell.[23]

Its ane o a kynd central geometry wis createit tae allou visitors tae easily see Guggenheim's collection of his paintins bi takin an elevator tae the tap-level an then viewin artworks bi walkin doun the slowly descendin, central spiral ramp, the floor o which is lodgit wi circular shapes an triangular licht bulbs tae complement the geometric naitur o the buildin.[23]

Houiver, whan the museum wis completit, some o Wright's design war ignorit, sic as his desire for the interior tae be paintit off-white.[23] Further, the Museum currently designs exhibits tae be viewit bi walkin up the curvit walkway wioot walkin doun frae the tap-level.[23]

Later career[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wright strangly believit in wirkin alane.[24] He did nae support the American Institute of Architects durin his career, goin so far as tae caw the organisation "a harbor o refuge for the incompetent," an "a form o refined gangsterism."[24] When an the Institute cried him "an auld amateur" Wright later respondit, "I am the auldest."[24] In 1940, Wright startit the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation. It wis set up for eddicational purposes. It leuks efter twa Wright biggins, Taliesin East in Wisconsin, an Taliesin West in Arizona. It haes a library wi mair nor 22,000 o Wright's drawins, an 300,000 documents. It is home tae the Frank Lloyd Wright School of Architecture.[25]

Personal life[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wright in 1954

Frank Lloyd Wright wis marrit three times an faitherit seiven childer, fower sons an three daughters. He an aa adoptit Svetlana Milanoff, the dauchter o his third wife, Olgivanna Lloyd Wright.[26] Wright ance haed an apprentice who wis marrit tae Joseph Stalin's dauchter.[27]

His wives war:

  • Catherine "Kitty" (Tobin) Wright (1871–1959); social wirker, socialite (marriit in Juin 1889; divorcit November 1922)
  • Maude "Miriam" (Noel) Wright (1869–1930), airtist (marrit in November 1923; divorcit August 1927)
  • Olga Ivanovna "Olgivanna" (Lazovich Milanoff) Lloyd Wright (1897–1985), dancer an writer (marrit in August 1928)

The Oscar-winnin actress Anne Baxter wis Wright's granddauchter.[28]

Daith[eedit | eedit soorce]

Wright deit on 9 Aprile 1959, while undergangin surgery in Phoenix, Arizona, tae remove an intestinal obstruction.[8] His third wife, Olgivanna wad die in 1985.[29] Wright wis suin burit in Unity Chapel in Wisconsin. Years later, his remains war crematit.

Frank Lloyd Wright's postage stamp published in 1966

Legacy[eedit | eedit soorce]

In 1966, the Unitit States Postal Service honorit Wright wi a Prominent Americans series 2¢ postage stamp.[30] Several of Wright's buildins hae been proposit bi the Unitit States tae be UNESCO World Heritage sites.[31]

Shortly efter his daith, Simon & Garfunkel recordit So Long, Frank Lloyd Wright as a tribute tae Wright.[32]

In 2000, Fallingwater wis namit "The Building of the 20th century" in "Top-Ten" poll taken bi members attendin the AIA annual convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[33] On that leet, Wright wis leetit alang wi mony o the USA's ither greatest airchitects includin Eero Saarinen, I. M. Pei, Louis Kahn, Philip Johnson an Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. He wis the anly airchitect who haed mair nor ane buildin on the leet. The ither three biggins war the Guggenheim Museum, the Frederick C. Robie House an the Johnson Wax Headquarters.[34]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Wright on the Web: The Early Years". www.delmars.com. Archived frae the original on 28 Julie 2012. Retrieved 18 Mey 2008.
  2. "Wright on the Web: The Fifties". www.delmars.com. Archived frae the original on 27 Apryle 2013. Retrieved 18 Mey 2008.
  3. "FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT: UNITARIAN ARCHITECT 1867- 1959". Harvard Square Library.com. Retrieved 21 Julie 2013.[deid airtin]
  4. "Frank Lloyd Wright. Life and Work". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 18 Mey 2009.
  5. a b c d Brewster, Mike (28 Julie 2004). "Frank Lloyd Wright: America's Architect". Business Week. The McGraw-Hill Companies. Retrieved 22 Januar 2008.
  6. "About Frank Lloyd Wright". www.wrightplus.org. Archived frae the original on 3 Apryle 2009. Retrieved 18 Mey 2008.
  7. a b "Frank Lloyd Wright biography". Browse biography.com. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  8. a b c "Frank Lloyd Wright Dies; Famed Architect Was 89". nytimes.com. 10 Apryle 1959. Retrieved 12 Mey 2010.
  9. "Frank Lincoln Wright. American Literature". Man Museum.com. Archived frae the original on 24 December 2019. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  10. a b "Frank Lloyd Wright". Historic Madison, Inc. Archived frae the original on 3 Apryle 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  11. Wright 2005, pp. 89–94.
  12. Tafel, Edgar (1985). Years With Frank lloyd Wright: Apprentice to Genius. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications. p. 31. ISBN 0-486-24801-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  13. Saint, Andrew (Mey 2004). "Frank Lloyd Wright an Paul Mueller: the architect an his bigger o chyce" (PDF). Architectural Research Quarterly. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7 (2): 157–167. doi:10.1017/S1359135503002112. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 4 Mairch 2016. Retrieved 16 Mairch 2010.
  14. a b c "Frank Lloyd Wright Works for Adler & Sullivan". World History Project.com. Archived frae the original on 16 Julie 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  15. Fallingwater Rising: Frank Lloyd Wright, E. J. Kaufmann, and America's Most Extraordinary House, Franklin Toker, Knopf, 2003, ISBN 1400040264.
  16. a b c "What is Fallingwater?". Fallingwater.com. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  17. "Fallingwater: Frank Lloyd Wright's masterpiece house above the waterfall". Wright House.com. Retrieved 31 August 2013..
  18. "The Fallingwater". CSUPomona.com. Archived frae the original on 2 Juin 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  19. "Stained-Glass Designs of Frank Lloyd Wright". Grainger Arts and Crafts Studio.com. Archived frae the original on 13 Mairch 2014. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  20. "Robie House Restoration Project". www.wrightplus.org. Archived frae the original on 4 November 2008. Retrieved 18 Mey 2008.
  21. a b c d e f g "Administration and Research Tower, S.C. Johnson Company". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Archived frae the original on 3 Apryle 2009. Retrieved 30 Juin 2008.
  22. a b c "Dubai Debt: What the Burj Khalifa—the tallest building in the world—owes to Frank Lloyd Wright". Slate.com. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  23. a b c d e "Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum". Guggenheim.com. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  24. a b c "Biography in Sound: Frank Lloyd Wright". Old Time Radio. Retrieved 9 September 2012.
  25. "About Us". www.franklloydwright.org. Archived frae the original on 16 September 2009. Retrieved 18 Mey 2008.
  26. ascedia.com. "Taliesin Preservation, Inc. – Frank Lloyd Wright – FAQs". Taliesinpreservation.org. Archived frae the original on 10 Juin 2008. Retrieved 16 October 2009. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)
  27. "Frank Lloyd Wright". www.steinerag.com. Retrieved 21 Julie 2013.
  28. "Anne Baxter genealogy". Ancestry.com. Archived frae the original on 3 Apryle 2015. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  29. "REBURIAL OF FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT TOUCHES OFF A STORMY DEBATE". New York Times.com. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
  30. "Frank Lloyd Wright Stamp". Miregestudio7.com. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  31. "Frank Lloyd Wright Buildings - UNESCO World Heritage Site". UNESCO.org. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  32. "So Long, Frank Lloyd Wright". Allmusic. Archived frae the original on 6 Mairch 2014. Retrieved 18 Julie 2011.
  33. "Fallingwater". U-S History.com. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  34. "Honoring Frank Lloyd Wright". AIA.org. Archived frae the original on 19 Apryle 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2013.

Ither wabsteid[eedit | eedit soorce]