Tlemcen

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Tlemcen
تلمسان
Ceety
The Gondola lift an foontain o Tlemcen
Tlemcen is located in Algeria
Tlemcen
Tlemcen
Coordinates: 34°52′58″N 01°19′00″W / 34.88278°N 1.31667°W / 34.88278; -1.31667
Kintra Algerie
Province Tlemcen
Destrict Tlemcen
Area
 • Total 9,061 km2 (3,498 sq mi)
Elevation 842 m (2,762 ft)
Population (2006)
 • Total 846,942
 • Density 93/km2 (240/sq mi)

Tlemcen (Arabic: تلمسان‎) is a toun in northwastren Algerie, an the caipital o the province o the same name. It is locatit inland in the center o a region kent for its olive plantations an vineyards. The ceety haes developed leather, carpet, an textile industries, which it ships tae the port o Rashgun for export.

Its population is aboot 140,000, while the province haed 949,135 inhabitants in the 2008 census[1].

Etymology[eedit | eedit soorce]

The wird Tlemcen (Arabic: تلمسان‎) comes frae Berber Tala Imsan (Tlemcen in Tifinagh.svg in Tifinagh) which means "the dry spring". The name is sometimes spelled Tlemsen, Tlemsan, or Tilimsen.

Cultur[eedit | eedit soorce]

A man o Tlemcen

Its centuries o rich history an cultur hae made the ceety a center o a unique blend o muisic an airt. Its textiles an haundcrafts, its elegant blend o Islamic, Berber, Andalucian an French culturs, an its ceul climate in the muntains hae made it an important center o tourism in Algerie. It is hame tae a bonnie tomb - that o Sidi Boumédiène, whose tomb adjoins tae a mosque. The Great Mosque at Tlemcen wis completit in 1136 an is said tae be the maist remarkable remainin example o Almoravid airchitectur.[2]

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tlemcen wis foondit bi the Romans in the 4t century CE unner the name o Pomaria as a military ootpost. It wis an important ceety in North Africae see o the Roman Catholic Kirk in the century in which it wis built, whaur it wis the center o a diocese. Its bishop, Victor, wis a prominent representative at the Cooncil o Carthage in 411, an its bishop Honoratus wis exiled in 484 bi the Vandal keeng Huneric for denyin Arianism. It wis a center o a lairge Christian population for mony centuries efter the ceety's Arab conquest in 708. In the later aicht century an the nint century, the ceety became a Kinrick o Banu Ifran o the Kharijite sufri.[3] These same Berber Kharijis an aa began tae develop various sma Saharan oases an tae link them intae regular trans-Saharan caravan routes terminatin at Tlemcen—beginnin a process that wad determine Tlemcen's historical role for amaist aw o the next millennium.[4]

In 1082 the Almoravid leader Yusuf ibn Tashfin foondit the ceety o Tagrart ("Encampment" in the Berber leid), which merged wi the existin settlement, nou cried Agadir an syne then became kent as Tlemcen (Tilimsan). Tlemcen probably passed frae Almoravid tae Almohad control in the mid-twalt century. Housomeivver, in the early thirteent century, Ibn Ghaniya attemptit tae restore Almoravid control o the Maghreb. In aboot 1209, the region aroond Tlemcen wis devastatit bi retreatin Almoravid forces, no lang afore their feenal defeat bi the Almohads at the Battle o Jebel Nafusa in 1210.[5] Despite the destruction o Tlemcen's aaready-feeble agricultural base, Tlemcen rose tae prominence as a major tradin an admeenistrative center in the region unner the succeedin reign o the Almohads.

On the collapse o Almohad rule in the 1230s Tlemcen became the caipital o ane o three successor states, the (Ziyyanid) kinrick o Tlemcen (1236 - 1554) an was ruled for centuries bi successive Ziyyanid sultans.[6] Its flag wis a white crescent pointin upwards on a blue field. Durin the Middle Ages, Tlemcen no anerlie served as a tradin ceety connectin the "coastal" route athort the Maghreb wi the trans-Saharan caravan routes,[7][8] but an aa hoosed a European tradin center (funduk) which connectit African an European merchants.[9] In pairticular, Tlemcen wis ane o the points through which African gowd (arrivin frae sooth o the Sahara via Sijilmasa or Taghaza) entered the European haunds.[10] Consequently, Tlemcen wis pairtially integratit intae the European financial seestem. So, for example, Genoese bills o exchynge circulatit there, at least amang merchants no subject tae (or no deterred bi) releegious prohibitions.[11]

At the peak o its success, in the first hauf o the fowerteent century, Tlemcen wis a ceety o perhaps 40,000 inhabitants.[12] It hoosed several well-kent madrasas an numerous wealthy releegious foondations, becomin the principal intellectual center o the central Maghreb. At the souq aroond the Great Mosque, merchants sauld woolen fabrics an rugs frae the East, slaves an gowd frae athort the Sahara, local earthenware an leather guids, an a variety o Mediterranean maritime guids "redirectit" tae Tlemcen bi corsairs -- in addition tae the intentional European imports available at the funduk.[13] Merchant hooses based in Tlemcen, such as the al-Makkari maintained regular branch offices in Mali an the Sudan.[14][15]

Later in the fowerteent century, the ceety twice fell unner the rule o the Marinid sultan, Abu al-Hasan Ali (1337–48) an his son Abu 'Inan. In baith cases, the Marinids foond that they wur unable tae hauld the region against local resistance.[16] Nivertheless, these episodes appear tae hae marked the beginnin o the end. Ower the follaein twa centuries, Zayyanid Tlemcen wis intermittently a vassel o Tunis, Fes, or Aragon.[17] When the Spainyie teuk the ceety o Oran frae the kinrick in 1509, continuous pressure frae the Berbers promptit the Spainyie tae attempt a coonterattack against the ceety o Tlemcen (1543), which wis deemed bi the Papacy tae be a crusade. The Spainyie failed tae take the ceety in the first attack, although the strategic vulnerability o Tlemcen caused the kinrick's weight tae shift toward the safer an mair hivily fortifee'd corsair base at Algiers.

The ruler o Tlemcen is reportit tae hae been advised bi a Jewish viceroy named Abraham, who, in the time o the Inquisition o Torquemada, opened the gates o Tlemcen tae hordes o Jews an Moors fleein Spain. Abraham is said tae hae supportit them wi his awn money an wi the tolerance o the keeng o Tlemcen.

In 1554, the kinrick o Tlemcen came unner the protection o the Ottoman Empire, which deposed the Zayyanid dynasty. The Ottomans wur fechtin a naval war against the Spaniards athort the Mediterranean, an the Kinrick o Tlemcen became anither vassal o the Sultan in Constantinople. Tlemcen an the Algerian provinces regained effective unthirldom in their awn affairs in 1671, although Tlemcen wis nae langer a govrenment seat as afore. The Spainyie wur evictit frae Oran in 1792, but thirty years later they wur replaced bi the French, who seized Algiers. A French fleet bombardit Algiers in 1830, at which point the dey capitulatit tae French colonial rule; a broad coalition o natives continued tae resist, coordinatit loosely at Tlemcen. The great Berber leader Abd al-Kader, fought wi incredible skill an valor, but his defeat in 1844 at Isly endit the dream o a new independent Algerie.

Tlemcen wis a vacation spot an retreat for French settlers in Algerie, who foond it tae be far mair temperate than Oran or Algiers. The ceety adaptit an became mair cosmopolitan, wi a unique ootleuk on airt an cultur, an its airchitecture an urban life evolved tae accommodate this new sense. In the independence muivements o the mid-twintiet century, it wis relatively quiet, reflectin the ceety's sense o aloofness frae the turbulence o Algiers.

Transport[eedit | eedit soorce]

It is served bi the internaitional Zenata Airport.

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Twin touns — Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

Tlemcen is twinned wi:

See an aa[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

Notes
  1. 2008 census [1]
  2. M. Talbi (1997), The Spread of Civilization in the Maghrib and its Impact on Western Civilization, in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 24-33.
  3. Ibn Khaldun, History of Berber
  4. Cedric Barnes (2006), Kharijis (768 CE), in Josef W Meri (ed.), Medieval Islamic Civilization: an Encyclopedia. Routledge., p. 436.
  5. O. Saidi (1997), The unification of the Maghrib under the Almohads, in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 8-23.
  6. Delfina S. Ruano (2006), Hafsids, in Josef W Meri (ed.), Medieval Islamic Civilization: an Encyclopedia. Routledge., p. 309.
  7. I. Hrbek (1997), The disintegration of political unity in the Maghrib, in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 34-43.
  8. S.M. Cissoko (1997), The Songhay from the twelfth to the sixteenth century, in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 77-86.
  9. Talbi (1997: 29).
  10. Id.
  11. Fernand Braudel (1979), Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century: Vol. III: The Perspective of the World. Transl. Sian Reynolds. Univ. Calif. Press & HarperCollins (1992), p. 66.
  12. Christopher Ehret (2002), The Civilizations of Africa: a History to 1800. Univ. Virginia Press, p. 334.
  13. R. Idris (1997), Society in the Maghrib after the disappearance of the Almohads, in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 44-49.
  14. D.T Niane(1997), Relationships and exchanges among the different regions, in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 245-253).
  15. Masatochi Kasaichi (2004), "Three renowned 'ulama' families of Tlemcen: The Maqqari, the Marzuqi and the 'Uqbani". J. Sophia Asian Studies 22: 121-137.
  16. Hrbek (1997: 39).
  17. Hrbek (1997: 41).
  18. syne 11 Julie 1989
  19. "Jumelage entre les villes de Tlemcen et de Lille : Martine Aubry reçue par Bouteflika et plusieurs ministres - Diplomatie - Tout sur l'Algérie - page 1". Tsa-algerie.com. Retrieved 2013-02-20. 
  20. "Fraternity cities on Sarajevo Official Web Site". ©City of Sarajevo 2001-2008. Retrieved 2008-11-09. 
  21. since 1964

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]


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