León, Guanajuato

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León
León de los Aldama
Ceety an municipality
Ceety o León

Flag

Seal
Motto: El trabajo todo lo vence (The wirk owercomes iverything)
Location o León in Mexico
Coordinates: 21°07′N 101°41′W / 21.117°N 101.683°W / 21.117; -101.683
Kintra Banner o Mexico Mexico
State Banner o Guanajuato Guanajuato
Fouodit 20 Januar 1576
Government
 • Mayor Bárbara Botello Santibáñez (PRI Party (Mexico).svg Partido Revolucionario Institucional)
Area
 • Land 1,219.67 km2 (470.92 sq mi)
Elevation 1,815 m (5,955 ft)
Population (2010)
 • Ceety an municipality 1,436,733
 • Metro 1,609,504
Time zone CST (UTC−6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC−5)
Area code(s) +52
Telephone exchynge 477
Sources:
National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Data Processing[1]

León is a ceety in the Mexican state o Guanajuato. It is the seat o the municipality o León an aw. It is pairt o the macroregion o Bajío.[2] It haes a strang leather industry, affering shoes, buits, belts, jackets, an ither leather accessories baith tae naitional an internaitional mercats.

In the 2010 census the Naitional Institute o Statistics, Geografie an Data Processin (INEGI) reportit 1,720,733 people living in the ceety o León, and 2,120,504 in the metropolitan area of León making it the seventh most populous metropolitan area in Mexico. Awtho no the caipital o the State, is considered the "Caipital" for Social, Commercial an Govrenment services.

Its first-cless services an hotel industry mak it ane o the maist important centres in Mexico wi numerous opportunities for entertainment, gastronomy, leisur activities, airts an recreation.[3]It is considered ane o the maist environmentally friendly ceeties in Mexico an aw an haes a heich nummer o cyclists, in pairt acause o the integration a netwirk o bike lanes intae the SIT seestem.[4]

León haes a first cless public transport seestem. In 2011 it receivit an honorable mention in the "Sustainable Transport Awaird 2011" alang wi Guangzhou, Cheenae beatin San Francisco, Californie an Zurich, Swisserland. Accordin tae the "Futur Ceeties" o the Breetish The Financial Times newspaper, Leon ranks first in lairge Laitin American ceeties wi regard tae cost-effectiveness.

In Mairch it receivit an awaird as "Ceety Watter Champion", alang wi Buenos Aires, Argentinae, Rotterdam, Netherlands an Lyon, Fraunce amang ither ceeties, awairdit bi the Warld Watter Cooncil Marseille, Fraunce, mainly due tae great progress in the auries o sanitation an wastewatter reuise an energy cogeneration frae biogas.

Climate[eedit | eedit soorce]

Leon generally haes a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cwa) wi simmer rainfaw (accordin tae Köppen climate clessification, Cwa) that closely borders on a semi-arid climate. The average annual temperatur is 19.9 °C (67.8 °F), the wairmest month is Mey wi a maximum average o 31.7 °C (89.1 °F), and the coolest month is Januar wi a minimum average temperatur o 7.7 °C (45.9 °F). Ootside the ceety microclimate island, the ranges tend tae be heicher, wi maximum averages reachin 2 °C (36 °F)higher than in the ceety, an minimum averages lawered bi 3 °C (37 °F) or mair. In the veelages locatit in atween the northren muntains the climate chynges; it is considered Cwb accordin tae Köppen climate clessification, the average annual temperatur are aroond 16 °C (61 °F).

Leon averages 681 mm (26.8 in) o precipitation annually, which mainly occurs durin the simmer an early hairst (frae late Mey throu October) generally wi thunnerstuirms in the fore-nicht. Thare is uisually a discrepancy about whether Leon's valley is either subhumid or semi-arid. Dependin on the methodology, it can be considered as bein either ane or the ither. Wi Köppen's methodology, thare needs tae be mair than 678 millimetres (27 in) o annual precipitation for Leon tae be considered as humid subtropical; accordin tae several wather stations it mey hae baith (humid subtropical an semiarid) terminologies appleed tae it. The years considered in the study mey be a determinant factor an aw (mair frecuently uised for internaitional purposes is a 30 years data compilation). Years o average rainfaw are rare; the uisual pattern is bimodal, wi some lairge string o dry years uisually relatit tae La Niña phenomenon (slichtly heicher than 300 millimetres (12 in)) follaeed bi ither years (aroond 5) relatit tae El Niño that mak up the average (wi heicher than 39 inches/1000 millimetres). Snawfaw is extremely rare. The latest snawfaw recordit in Leon wis in 1997, awtho thare hae been ither years o registered slushy snaw syne 1997.

Climate data for Downtown Leon
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record heich °C (°F) 30.0
(86.0)
33.0
(91.4)
35.5
(95.9)
42.2
(108.0)
39.5
(103.1)
38.0
(100.4)
34.5
(94.1)
36.0
(96.8)
33.5
(92.3)
37.0
(98.6)
33.0
(91.4)
36.5
(97.7)
42.2
(108.0)
Average heich °C (°F) 23.6
(74.5)
25.7
(78.3)
28.2
(82.8)
30.5
(86.9)
31.7
(89.1)
29.9
(85.8)
27.5
(81.5)
27.6
(81.7)
27.1
(80.8)
26.9
(80.4)
25.8
(78.4)
24.0
(75.2)
27.4
(81.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 15.7
(60.3)
17.3
(63.1)
19.5
(67.1)
22.1
(71.8)
23.7
(74.7)
23.1
(73.6)
21.3
(70.3)
21.4
(70.5)
21.0
(69.8)
19.7
(67.5)
17.9
(64.2)
16.2
(61.2)
19.9
(67.8)
Average laich °C (°F) 7.7
(45.9)
8.9
(48.0)
10.9
(51.6)
13.8
(56.8)
15.7
(60.3)
16.4
(61.5)
15.2
(59.4)
15.2
(59.4)
14.8
(58.6)
12.5
(54.5)
10.0
(50.0)
8.3
(46.9)
12.5
(54.5)
Record laich °C (°F) 0.0
(32.0)
−1.5
(29.3)
0.0
(32.0)
3.0
(37.4)
8.5
(47.3)
7.0
(44.6)
7.0
(44.6)
3.0
(37.4)
5.0
(41.0)
3.0
(37.4)
1.0
(33.8)
−2.5
(27.5)
−2.5
(27.5)
Rainfall mm (inches) 15.1
(0.594)
11.0
(0.433)
5.7
(0.224)
8.1
(0.319)
24.6
(0.969)
107.5
(4.232)
182.6
(7.189)
160.0
(6.299)
111.5
(4.39)
39.3
(1.547)
9.4
(0.37)
6.5
(0.256)
681.3
(26.823)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.7 1.6 1.3 2.0 4.9 11.6 16.2 13.3 10.3 5.0 1.3 1.4 71.6
Source: SMN (normals 1981-2010, extremes 1947-2011)[5][6]

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety o Leon is well kent for its leather an fuitwear industry. Housomeivver in the last decade the ceety haes developit a important economic activity in the automotive industry an aw.

Industrial pairks[eedit | eedit soorce]

60% o the shoes producit in Mexico are made in León, an thare are chemical industry an aw, leather, transportation, plastic, polymer, box companies. Thare is cluster o automotive industries an aw, includin a General Motors plant in the nearbi municipality o Silao. León is the naitional heidquairters o the bank Banco del Bajío an aw awned bi Salvador Oñate, an is the heidquairters o regional diveesions o banks such as Banamex, HSBC etc.

Santa Fe Industrial Pairks

Customs facility[eedit | eedit soorce]

A newly built facility athin GTO Inland Port’s premises speeds up the logistics process. Clearin customs in a border ceety or seaport is nae langer a requirement for companies locatit in GTO Inland Port; nou they uise this vera convenient facility.

Customs athin GTO Inland Port

Rail conteener facility[eedit | eedit soorce]

A rail conteener yard is nou afferin inter-modal services for rail transportation. The facility is operatit bi the lairgest rail company in Mexico an haes ane o the longest rail spurs in the kintra.

GPI Railyard
Bajio Internaitional Airport

Expositions[eedit | eedit soorce]

In the Poliforum thare are trade fairs throuoot the year. The principal twa are Sapica (Shoe Fair), an ANPIC (suppleers o the shoe industry).

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Madero street

In the León aurie thare are ten distinct aircheological zones, datin frae the pre-classic Mesoamerican period.[7] Most of these are identified with the Chupícuaro culture.[8] Bi the Cleessic period, the aurie wis unner Teotihuacan an Toltec influence. In the 13t century, the Chichimecas, maistly o the Guamare an Guachichil subgroups, owerran the aurie, migratin frae a aurie o wha is nou San Luis Potosí. They remained throu the Colonial period.[7][8]

Oreeginal kirk on main plaza

In 1530 Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán arrivit wi allee'd Tarasco Indies tae the aurie, namin it Nuestra Señora.[7] Hamesteads wur grantit bi the govrenor o Nueva Galicia Francisco Vásquez de Coronado tae Spaniards Rodrigo de Vázquez an Juan de Jasso.[8] Fermin an cattle-raisin wis introducit here aroond 1546 bi the Spaniards but these settlers wur unner constant threat bi the Chichimecas, who recognisit the Spainyie as invaders. These settlers requestit assistance frae the viceregal authorities in Mexico Ceety.[7][8]

As a response, viceroy Martín Enríquez de Almanza ordered the foondin o a ceety here, wi the name o León in 1575. Tae carry oot the order, Juan Bautista de Orozco foondit the veelage o León on 20 Januar 1576, creatin its first toun cooncil an layin oot its initial streets. In 1580, it attained the rank o "alcadía mayor" meanin it haes govrenin authority o hintle o the land an smawer touns surroondin it frae the Sierra de Comanja tae the Lerma River.[7][8] For example, twa ither touns foondit in the aurie wur San Miguel an Coecillo. In San Miguel, the Spaniards settled the Otomi fowks an in Coecillo wur settled the Purépechas, Mexicas and the Chichimecas that did no oppose Spainyie rule. As the population o the aurie grew, a nummer o municipalities wad eventually break aff, such as San Francisco del Rincón, Purísima del Rincón (Purísima Concepción), Cd. Manuel Doblado (San Pedro Piedra Gorda), Huanímaro, Abasolo, Cuerámaro an Pénjamo.[8]

In 1582, the first hospital o San Cosme y San Damián wis established bi Father Espino.[8]

The Jesuits arrivit tae León in 1731, foondin the "Compañía Vieja" which is nou the steid o the Temple o the Immaculate. They constructit the Temple o the New Company an aw, which wad become the Cathedral, housomeivver they niver feenished it as they wur expelled frae Mexico in 1767. On 2 Julie 1732 arrivit a image o Oor Maist Holy Mither o Licht. She wad later be declared the patron saunt o the ceety, in 1849.[8]

The population o the aurie suffered epidemics in 1643, drochts in 1630 an 1712–1714, famines in 1714 an 1786, an floodin in 1637, 1749, 1762 an 1803.[8]

Unthirldom forces unner José Rafael de Iriarte arrivit tae the toun on 4 October 1810. Housomeivver, twa months later ryalist forces unner Felix Calleja reteuk the locality, wi insurrectionist sympathizers facin reprisals.[7] Aboot 2,000 insurgents on horses attackit the toun but wur repulsed bi Coont Pérez Gálvez.[8] Ryalist forces wur attackit here in 1817 bi Francisco Javier Mina athoot success. The toun remained in ryalist haunds till the end o the Mexican War o Unthirldom, when Agustín de Iturbide arrivit.[7] The toun did no celebrate its first Grito de Dolores tae mark unthirldom till 1825. In 1827 it became ane o the fower "depairtments" o the newly creatit state o Guanajuato, an in 1830, it gained ceety status.[8]

In 1840, Faither Ignacio Aguado foondit the College o San Francisco de Sales an the College o La Madre Santísima wis foondit in 1844.[8]

Durin La Reforma War, the ceety chyngit haunds various times atween Leeberal an Conservative forces atween 1858 an 1860. The maist notable battle o that war here wis when General José Iniesta attackit the toun on 18 Februar 1859. In that same year, León even separatit for a time from the rest o the state o Guanajuato.[8]

In 1862 the bishopric o León wis foondit, separatin the ceety o León an nine ither municipalities such as Irapuato, Guanajuato an Dolores Hidalgo frae the bishopric o Michoacán. Bishop Diez de Sollano opened the Conciliar Seminar in 1864. This bishop consecratit the Basilica Cathedral in 1866, even tho it wis no completit, givin the image o the Virgin o the Licht a permanent hame.[8]

Frae 1863 tae 1866, the French occupeed León durin the French Intervention, wi Emperor Maximillian visitin the ceety in 1864. His arrival wis hintle celebratit here, wi firewirks an a hot air balloon exhibition put on bi the Alemán brithers. Housomeivver, when Leeberal forces feenally haed permanent control ower the toun, twa incidents occurred. On 30 September 1867, Coronel Cecilio Delgado Estrada ordered his men tae shuit ower the heids o fowk who prayed in the streets, causin some tae be woondit. Anither incident o this teep occurred in 1877. The seicont wis mair permanent. The Leeberals decommissioned the convent an college o Saunts Peter an Paul, convertin it intae offices for ceety govrenment. It remains such tae this day.[8]

On 2 Januar 1946 a mob gathered in the plaza in front o the municipal palace tae protest elections seen as illegitimate. These protesters wur fired upon, killin mony. This plaza haes been namit the "Plaza o the Martyrs" in their honor.[7]

Sports[eedit | eedit soorce]

Team SPORTS League Venue
Club León fitbaa Primera División Profesional Estadio León
Unión de Curtidores fitbaa Segunda División Profesional Estadio Leon
Lechugueros de León Basketbaw Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional Domo de la Feria

Soccer[eedit | eedit soorce]

The ceety's main profeesional soccer team is Club León, which is ane o the foremaist teams in Mexico, seiven-time league champion, nou playin in the Liga MX. The team's stadium, Estadio León, bears a Catalan name an aw: Nou Camp. FIFA Warld Cup gemmes hae been played thare (1970 an 1986).

A new franchise wi the name o Curtidores appeared in the Primera División A in the mid-1990s, but, efter bein champion in 1999 an earnin the richt tae play in the Primera División, wis sauld an muivit tae Puebla tae become Puebla F.C. In 2007 a new franchise namit Unión de Curtidores began playin at Segunda División. Nouadays, there are several soccer teams in the ceety playin in the Tercera División: Atlético ECCA, Juventud Cuerera an Conmudaj, amang some ithers alang wi the weemen's league, Super Liga Femenil de Futbol.

Rally Mexico (WRC)[eedit | eedit soorce]

Syne 2004 the ceety haes hostit the heidquairters o Rally Mexico locatit at the Centro de Convenciones Poliforum Leon, ane roond o the Warld Rally Championship. Thoosans o fans camp at the nearbi Sierra de Lobos tae watch the rally. The Rally taks place in three ceeties: Guanajuato, Silao an León.

Basketbaw[eedit | eedit soorce]

Syne 2004, León haes a basketbaw team, Lechugueros, which plays in the Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional (LNBP). They play in the Domo de la Feria (umwhile kent as Auditorio Municipal). Afore this team, the ceety haed ither profeesional basketbaw teams: Lechugueros (oreeginal franchise), Zapateros, Pony-León an Atléticos. These teams pairticipatit in the CIMEBA (Circuito Mexicano de Básquetbol), which wis the main basketbaw league o Mexico in the 1970s an 1980s.

Basebaw[eedit | eedit soorce]

León haed twa basebaw teams in the Liga Mexicana de Beisbol: Cachorros de León, in the late 1970s, an Bravos de León, in the late 80's. Bravos, efter becomin champions o the league in 1990, an due tae financial problems, wur sauld an muivit tae Minatitlán, Veracruz. Syne then, attempts tae bring a new basebaw team tae the ceety hae been unsuccessful.

Tennis[eedit | eedit soorce]

León haes been a host ceety for the yearly ATP Challenger Tour syne 1992.

Internaitional relations[eedit | eedit soorce]

Sister ceeties[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "INEGI". INEGI. Retrieved 2012-01-08. 
  2. http://t21.com.mx/opinion/bitacora/2013/08/16/bajio-nuevo-milagro-mexicano
  3. "Leon Excitement City • Leon Guanajuato Mexico". Ocvleon.com. Retrieved 2012-01-08. 
  4. "Institute for Transportation and Development Policy : News : Sustainable Transport Award cities: León". ITDP. 2011-01-18. Retrieved 2012-01-08. 
  5. "NORMALES CLIMATOLÓGICAS 1981-2010" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico National. Retrieved August 30, 2012. 
  6. "Extreme Temperatures and Precipitation for Leon 1947-2011" (in Spanish). Servicio Meteorológico National. Retrieved January 21, 2013. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 "Enciclopedia de los municipios Guanajuato Leon" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 "Leon Guanajuato Historia" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2008-10-18. 

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]