Avocado

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Avocado
Close-up picture o foliage an avocado fruit
Avocado fruit an foliage, Réunion island
Ripe avocado fruit an cross-section
Scienteefic classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Angiosperms
Class: Magnoliids
Order: Laurales
Family: Lauraceae
Genus: Persea
Species: P. americana
Binomial name
Persea americana
Mill.
Synonyms

Persea gratissima

The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree native tae Central Mexico,[1] classified in the flouering plant faimily Lauraceae alang wi cinnamon, camphor an bay laurel. Avocado or alligator pear also refers tae the fruit (botanically a lairge berry that contains a single seed[2]) o the tree.

Avocados are commercially valuable an are cultivatit in tropical an Mediterranean climates throughoot the warld. Thay hae a green-skinned, fleshy body that mey be pear-shaped, egg-shaped, or spherical. Commercially, it ripens efter harvestin. Trees are partially self-pollinatin an eften are propagatit through graftin tae maintain a predictable quality an quantity o the fruit.

Cultivation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Food and agriculture
Avocado.jpeg
Avocado fruit (cv. 'Fuerte'); left: whole, right: in section
Kintra Quantity (Tm) Warld Rank[3]
Mexico 1,040,390 1
Indonesie 263,575 2
United States of America 214,000 3
Colombie 185,811 4
Brazil 175,000 5
Chile 163,000 6
Dominican Republic 140,000 7
Peru 102,000 8
China 85,000 9
Ethiopie 81,500 10
[3]

The tree graws tae 20 m (66 ft), wi alternately arranged leaves 12 centimetres (4.7 in) – 25 centimetres (9.8 in) lang. The flouers are inconspicuous, greenish-yellae, 5 millimetres (0.2 in) – 10 millimetres (0.4 in) wide. The pear-shaped fruit is 7 centimetres (2.8 in) – 20 centimetres (7.9 in) lang, weighs atween 100 grams (3.5 oz) – 1,000 grams (35 oz), an haes a lairge central seed, 5 centimetres (2.0 in) – 6.4 centimetres (2.5 in) lang.[4]

The subtropical species needs a climate withoot frost an wi little wind. Heich winds reduce the humidity, dehydrate the flouers, an affect pollination. When even a mild frost occurs, prematur fruit drop mey occur, although the Hass cultivar can tolerate temperatures down to −1°C. The trees also need well-aerated soils, ideally more than 1 m deep. Yield is reduced when the irrigation watter is highly saline. These soil an climate conditions are available only in a few auries o the warld, particularly in soothren Spain, Portugal, Morocco, Crete, the Levant, Sooth Africae, Colombie, Peru, pairts o central an northren Chile, Vietnam, Indonesia, pairts o soothren Indie, Sri Lanka, Australie, New Zealand, the Philippines, Malaysie, Central Americae, the Caribbean, Mexico, Californie, Arizona, Puerto Rico, New Mexico, Texas, Florida, Hawai'i, Ecuador an Rwanda. Each region haes different types o cultivars.

Culinary uses[eedit | eedit soorce]

Avocados, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 670 kJ (160 kcal)
Carbohydrates 8.53 g
- Succars 0.66 g
- Dietary fiber 6.7 g
Fat 14.66 g
- saturatit 2.13 g
- monounsaturated 9.80 g
- polyunsaturated 1.82 g
Protein 2 g
Watter 73.23 g
Vitamin A equiv. 7 μg (1%)
- beta-carotene 62 μg (1%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin 271 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.067 mg (6%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.13 mg (11%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 1.738 mg (12%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 1.389 mg (28%)
Vitamin B6 0.257 mg (20%)
Folate (vit. B9) 81 μg (20%)
Vitamin C 10 mg (12%)
Vitamin E 2.07 mg (14%)
Vitamin K 21 μg (20%)
Calcium 12 mg (1%)
Iron 0.55 mg (4%)
Magnesium 29 mg (8%)
Manganese 0.142 mg (7%)
Phosphorus 52 mg (7%)
Potassium 485 mg (10%)
Sodium 7 mg (0%)
Zinc 0.64 mg (7%)
Fluoride 7 µg
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

The fruit o horticultural cultivars haes a mercatly heicher fat content than maist ither fruit, maistly monounsaturatit fat, an as such serves as an important staple in the diet o various groups where access tae ither fatty fuids (heich-fat meats an fish, dairy products, etc.) is limitit.

A ripe avocado yields tae gentle pressur when held in the palm o the haund an squeezed. The flesh is prone tae enzymatic brounin; it turns broun quickly efter exposur tae air. Tae prevent this, lime or lemon juice can be addit tae avocados efter thay are peeled.

Indonesian-style avocado milkshake wi chocolate syrup

The fruit is nae sweet, but rich, an distinctly yet subtly flavored, an o smooth, almaist creamy texture. It is uised in baith savory an sweet dishes, though in mony kintras nae for baith. The avocado is very popular in vegetarian cuisine, as substitute for meats in sandwiches an salads acause o its heich fat content.

Generally, avocado is served raw, though some cultivars, includin the common Hass, can be cuiked for a short time withoot acomin bitter. Caution should be uised when cuikin wi untestit cultivars; the flesh o some avocados mey be rendered inedible bi heat. Prolonged cuikin induces this chemical reaction in aw cultivars.[5]

It is uised as the base for the Mexican dip kent as guacamole, as well as a spread on corn tortillas or toast, served wi spices.

In the Philippines, Brazil, Indonesie, Vietnam, an soothren Indie (especially the coastal Kerala an Karnataka region), avocados are frequently uised for milkshakes an occasionally addit tae ice cream an ither desserts. In Brazil, Vietnam, the Philippines[6] an Indonesie, a dessert drink is made wi sugar, milk or watter, an pureed avocado. Chocolate syrup is sometimes addit. In Morocco, there is a similar chilled avocado an milk drink, that is sweetened wi confectioner's sugar an hintit wi orange flouer watter.

In Ethiopie, avocados are made intae juice bi mixin them wi succar an milk or watter, usually served wi Vimto an a slice o leemon. It is also very common tae serve layered multiple fruit juices in a glass (locally called spreece) made o avocados, mangoes, bananas, guavas an papayas. Avocados are also uised tae mak salads.

Avocados in savory dishes, eften seen as exotic, are a relative novelty in Portuguese-speakin kintras, such as Brazil, where the tradeetional preparation is mashed wi succar an lime, an eaten as a dessert or snack. This contrasts wi Spainyie-speakin kintras, such as Mexico or Argentinae, where the opposite is true an sweet preparations are eften unheard o.

In Australie an New Zealand, it is commonly served in sandwiches, sushi, on toast, or wi chicken. In Ghana, it is eften eaten alone in sliced bread as a sandwich. In Sri Lanka, well ripened flesh, thoroughly mashed wi succar an milk, or treacle (a syrup made frae the nectar o a particular palm flouer) wis ance a popular dessert. In Haiti it is eften consumed wi cassava or regular bread for breakfast.

In Mexico an Central Americae, avocados are served mixed wi white rice, in soups, salads, or on the side o chicken an meat. In Peru, thay are consumed wi tequeños as mayonnaise, served as a side dish wi parrillas, uised in salads an sandwiches, or as a whole dish when filled wi tuna, shrimp, or chicken. In Chile, it is uised as a puree wi chicken, hamburgers, an het dugs; an in slices for celery or lettuce salads. The Chilean version o Caesar salad contains lairge slices o matur avocado. In Kenyae an Nigerie, the avocado is eften eaten as a fruit, an is eaten alone, or mixed wi ether fruits in a fruit salad, or as pairt o a vegetable salad. In Iran, it is uised as a rejuvenatin facial cream.

A puree o the fruit wis uised tae thicken an flavor the liqueur Advocaat in its oreeginal recipe, made bi the Dutch population o Suriname an Recife, wi the name derivin frae the same soorce.

Avocado slices are frequently addit tae hamburgers, tortas, het dugs, an carne asada. Avocado can be combined wi eggs (in scrambled eggs, tortillas or omelettes), an is a key ingredient in Californie rolls an ither makizushi ("maki", or rolled sushi).

In soothren Africae, Avocado Ritz is a common dish.[7]

In the Unitit Kinrick, the avocado acame widely available in the 1960s when it was introduced bi Sainsbury's unner the name 'avocado pear'.[8]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Chen, H.; Morrell, P. L.; Ashworth, V. E. T. M.; De La Cruz, M.; Clegg, M. T. (2008). "Tracing the Geographic Origins of Major Avocado Cultivars". Journal of Heredity 100 (1): 56–65. doi:10.1093/jhered/esn068. PMID 18779226. 
  2. California Avocado Society 1973–74 Yearbook 57: 70–71, What kind of fruit is the avocado?
  3. 3.0 3.1 FAO (2004) Major Producers of Avocado
  4. Dowling, Curtis F.; Morton, Julia Frances (1987). Fruits of warm climates. Miami, Fla: J.F. Morton. ISBN 0-9610184-1-0. 
  5. Bates, Robert P. (1970). "HEAT-INDUCED OFF-FLAVOR IN AVOCADO FLESH". Journal of Food Science 35 (4): 478. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1970.tb00962.x. 
  6. Zeldes, Leah A. (2010-06-02). "Eat this! The ‘Hass’ avocado, black and green and creamy". Dining Chicago. Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc. Retrieved 2010-06-20. 
  7. Recipe for avocado ritz
  8. Delgado, Martin. "Sainsbury, M&S ... and the great ad-vocado war". Daily Mail. 

External links[eedit | eedit soorce]

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