Teepically a leaf is a thin, flattened organ borne above grund an specialized for photosynthesis, but mony types o leaves are adaptit in ways almaist unrecognisable in those terms: some are nae flat (for example mony succulent leaves an conifers), some are nae above grund (such as bulb scales), an some are wioot major photosynthetic function (consider for example cataphylls, spines, an cotyledons).
Conversely, mony structurs o non-vascular plants, or even o some lichens, which are nae plants at aw (in the sense o bein members o the kinrick Plantae), dae leuk an function much lik leaves. Furthermair, several structurs foond in vascular plants leuk lik leaves but are nae actually leaves; thay differ from leaves in thair structurs an origins. Examples include phyllodes, cladodes, an phylloclades.
- Haupt, Arthur Wing, Plant morphology. Publisher: McGraw-Hill 1953. Downloable from http://www.archive.org/details/plantmorphology00haup
- Mauseth, James D. Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology. Publisher: Jones & Bartlett, 2008 ISBN 978-0763753450