Sodium

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Sodium
11Na
Li

Na

K
neonsodiummagnesium
Appearance
sillery white metallic


Spectral lines o sodium
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer sodium, Na, 11
Pronunciation /ˈsdiəm/ SOH-dee-əm
Element category alkali metal
Group, period, block 1 (alkali metals), 3, s
Staundart atomic wicht 22.98976928(2)
Electron confeeguration [Ne] 3s1
2,8,1
Electron shells of sodium (2,8,1)
History
Discovery Humphry Davy (1807)
First isolation Humphry Davy (1807)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 0.968 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 0.927 g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 370.944 K, 97.794 °C, 208.029 °F
Boilin pynt 1156.090 K, 882.940 °C, 1621.292 °F
Creetical pynt (extrapolatit)
2573 K, 35 MPa
Heat o fusion 2.60 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization 97.42 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 28.230 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 554 617 697 802 946 1153
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 1, −1
(strangly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 0.93 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 495.8 kJ·mol−1
2nt: 4562 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 6910.3 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 186 pm
Covalent radius 166±9 pm
Van der Waals radius 227 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure body-centered cubic
Sodium has a body-centered cubic crystal structure
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[1]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 47.7 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 142 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 71 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 3200 m·s−1
Young's modulus 10 GPa
Shear modulus 3.3 GPa
Bulk modulus 6.3 GPa
Mohs hairdness 0.5
Brinell hairdness 0.69 MPa
CAS registry nummer 7440-23-5
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o sodium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
22Na trace 2.602 y β+γ 0.5454 22Ne*
1.27453(2)[2] 22Ne
εγ - 22Ne*
1.27453(2) 22Ne
β+ 1.8200 22Ne
23Na 100% 23Na is stable wi 12 neutrons
* = excited state
· r

Sodium is a chemical element wi the seembol Na (frae Laitin: natrium) an atomic nummer 11. It is a saft, siller-white, heichly reactive metal an is a member o the alkali metals; its anly stable isotope is 23Na. The free metal daes nae occur in naitur, but instead must be prepared frae its compoonds; it wis first isolatit bi Humphry Davy in 1807 bi the electrolysis o sodium hydroxide. Sodium is the saxt maist abundant element in the Yird's crust, an exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars, sodalite an rock salt. Mony sauts o sodium are heichly watter-soluble, an thair sodium haes been leached bi the action o watter so that chloride an sodium (NaCl) are the maist common dissolved elements bi wicht in the Yird's bodies o oceanic watter.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  2. Endt, P. M. (1990). "Energy levels of A = 21–44 nuclei (VII)". Nuclear Physics A 521: 1–400. Bibcode:1990NuPhA.521....1E. doi:10.1016/0375-9474(90)90598-G.