Copper

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Copper
29Cu
-

Cu

Ag
nickelcopperzinc
Appearance
reid-orange metallic luster

Native copper (~4 cm in size)
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer copper, Cu, 29
Pronunciation /ˈkɒpər/ KOP-ər
Element category transeetion metal
Group, period, block 11, 4, d
Staundart atomic wicht 63.546(3)
Electron confeeguration [Ar] 3d10 4s1
2, 8, 18, 1
Electron shells of copper (2, 8, 18, 1)
History
Namin after Cyprus, principal minin place in Roman era (Cyprium)
Discovery Middle Eastrens (9000 BC)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 8.96 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 8.02 g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 1357.77 K, 1084.62 °C, 1984.32 °F
Boilin pynt 2835 K, 2562 °C, 4643 °F
Heat o fusion 13.26 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization 300.4 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 24.440 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1509 1661 1850 2089 2404 2834
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +1, +2, +3, +4
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.90 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 745.5 kJ·mol−1
2nt: 1957.9 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3555 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 128 pm
Covalent radius 132±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 140 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure face-centered cubic
Copper has a face-centered cubic crystal structure
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic[1]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 16.78 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 401 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 16.5 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed o soond (thin rod) (r.t.) (annealed)
3810 m·s−1
Young's modulus 110–128 GPa
Shear modulus 48 GPa
Bulk modulus 140 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.34
Mohs hairdness 3.0
Vickers hairdness 369 MPa
Brinell hairdness 35 HB = 874 MPa
CAS registry nummer 7440-50-8
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o copper
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
63Cu 69.15% 63Cu is stable wi 34 neutrons
64Cu syn 12.700 h ε - 64Ni
β - 64Zn
65Cu 30.85% 65Cu is stable wi 36 neutrons
67Cu syn 61.83 h β - 67Zn
· r

Copper is a chemical element in the periodic cairt that haes the seembol Cu (L.: Cuprum) an atomic nummer 29. It is a ductile metal wi very hicht thermal an electrical conductivity.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.