Fluorine

Frae Wikipedia
Lowp tae: navigation, rake
Fluorine
9F
-

F

Cl
oxygenfluorineneon
Appearance
gas: very pale yellae
liquid: bricht yellae
solid: transparent (beta), opaque (alpha)
Smaa sample o pale yellae liquid fluorine condensed in liquid nitrogen
Liquid fluorine at cryogenic temperaturs
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer fluorine, F, 9
Pronunciation /ˈflʊərn/ FLUU-reen, /ˈflʊərɪn/, /ˈflɔərn/
Element category diatomic nonmetal
Group, period, block 17 (halogens), 2, p
Staundart atomic wicht 18.998403163(6)
Electron confeeguration [He] 2s2 2p5[1]
2, 7
Electron shells of fluorine (2, 7)
History
Namin efter the mineral fluorite, itself named efter Latin fluo (tar flow, in smeltin)
Discovery André-Marie Ampère (1810)
First isolation Henri Moissan[1] (Juin 26, 1886)
Named by Humphry Davy
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
1.696[2] g/L
Liquid density at b.p. 1.505[3] g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 53.48 K, −219.67 °C, −363.41[4] °F
Boilin pynt 85.03 K, −188.11 °C, −306.60[4] °F
Triple pynt 53.48 K (-220°C), 90[4] kPa
Creetical pynt 144.41 K, 5.1724[4] MPa
Heat o vaporization 6.51[2] kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity (Cp) (21.1 °C) 31[3] J·mol−1·K−1
(Cv) (21.1 °C) 23[3] J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 38 44 50 58 69 85
Atomic properties
Oxidation states −1
(oxidizes oxygen)
Electronegativity 3.98[1] (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1681[5] kJ·mol−1
2nt: 3374[5] kJ·mol−1
3rd: 6147[5] kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 64[6] pm
Van der Waals radius 135[7] pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure monoclinic
Fluorine has a monoclinic base-centered crystal structure

alpha state (low-temperature)[8]
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic, −1.2×10−4 (SI)[9][10]
Thermal conductivity 0.02591[11] W·m−1·K−1
CAS registry nummer 7782-41-4[1]
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o fluorine
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
18F trace 109.77 min β+ (96.9%) 0.634 18O
ε (3.1%) 1.656 18O
19F 100% 19F is stable wi 10 neutrons
reference[12]
· r

Fluorine is the chemical element wi seembol F an atomic nummer 9. At ruim temperatur, it is a pale yellae gas componed o diatomic molecules, F
2
. Fluorine is the lichtest halogen an the maist electronegative element. It requires great care in handlin as it is extremely reactive an poisonous.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Aigueperse et al. 2005, "Fluorine", p. 1.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Aigueperse et al. 2005, "Fluorine", p. 2.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Compressed Gas Association (1999). Handbook of compressed gases. Springer. p. 365. ISBN 9780412782305. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (92nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 4.121. ISBN 1439855110. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Dean 1999, p. 4.6.
  6. Dean 1999, p. 4.35.
  7. Kim, Sung-Hoon (2006). Functional dyes. Elsevier. p. 257. ISBN 9780444521767. 
  8. Young, David A. (1975). Phase Diagrams of the Elements (Report). Springer. p. 10. http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/4010212-0BbwUC/4010212.pdfaccess. Retrieved 10 June 2011. 
  9. Mackay, Mackay & Henderson 2002, p. 72.
  10. Cheng, H.; Fowler, D. E.; Henderson, P. B.; Hobbs, J. P.; Pascaloni, M. R. (1999). "On the magnetic susceptibility of fluorine". Journal of Physical Chemistry A 103 (15): 2861–2866. doi:10.1021/jp9844720. 
  11. Yaws & Braker 2001, p. 385.
  12. Chiste, V.; Be, M. M. (2006). "F-18". Table de radionucleides. Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel. Retrieved 15 June 2011.