Bismuth

Frae Wikipedia
Lowp tae: navigation, rake
Bismuth
83Bi
Sb

Bi

Uup
leadbismuthpolonium
Appearance
lustrous siller
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer bismuth, Bi, 83
Pronunciation /ˈbɪzməθ/ BIZ-məth
Element category puir metal
Group, period, block 15 (pnictogens), 6, p
Staundart atomic wicht 208.98040(1)
Electron confeeguration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
Electron shells of bismuth (2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5)
History
Discovery Claude François Geoffroy (1753)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 9.78 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 10.05 g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 544.7 K, 271.5 °C, 520.7 °F
Boilin pynt 1837 K, 1564 °C, 2847 °F
Heat o fusion 11.30 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization 151 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 25.52 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 941 1041 1165 1325 1538 1835
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1
(mildly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.02 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 703 kJ·mol−1
2nt: 1610 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2466 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 156 pm
Covalent radius 148±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 207 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure rhombohedral[1]
Bismuth has a rhombohedral crystal structure
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 1.29 µΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 7.97 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 13.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 1790 m·s−1
Young's modulus 32 GPa
Shear modulus 12 GPa
Bulk modulus 31 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.33
Mohs hairdness 2.25
Brinell hairdness 94.2 MPa
CAS registry nummer 7440-69-9
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o bismuth
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
207Bi syn 31.55 y β+ 2.399 207Pb
208Bi syn 3.68×105 y β+ 2.880 208Pb
209Bi 100% 1.9×1019 y α 3.137 205Tl
210Bi trace 5.012 d β 1.426 210Po
α 5.982 206Tl
210mBi syn 3.04×106 y IT 0.271 210Bi
α 6.253 206Tl
· r

Bismuth is a chemical element wi seembol Bi an atomic nummer 83. Bismuth, a pentavalent puir metal, chemically resembles arsenic an antimony. Elemental bismuth mey occur naiturally, altho its sulfide an oxide furm important commercial ores. The free element is 86% as dense as leid. It is a brittle metal wi a sillery white colour when freshly produced, but is eften seen in air wi a pink tinge owin tae surface oxidation. Bismuth is the maist naiturally diamagnetic element an haes ane o the lawest values o thermal conductivity amang metals.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Cucka, P.; Barrett, C. S. (1962). "The crystal structure of Bi and of solid solutions of Pb, Sn, Sb and Te in Bi". Acta Crystallographica 15 (9): 865. doi:10.1107/S0365110X62002297.