Dysprosium

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Dysprosium
66Dy
-

Dy

Cf
terbiumdysprosiumholmium
Appearance
sillery white
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer dysprosium, Dy, 66
Pronunciation /dɪsˈprziəm/
dis-PROH-zee-əm
Element category lanthanide
Group, period, block n/a, 6, f
Staundart atomic wicht 162.500
Electron confeeguration [Xe] 4f10 6s2
2, 8, 18, 28, 8, 2
Electron shells of dysprosium (2, 8, 18, 28, 8, 2)
History
Discovery Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1886)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 8.540 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 8.37 g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 1680 K, 1407 °C, 2565 °F
Boilin pynt 2840 K, 2562 °C, 4653 °F
Heat o fusion 11.06 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization 280 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 27.7 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1378 1523 (1704) (1954) (2304) (2831)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1

(weakly basic oxide)

Electronegativity 1.22 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 573.0 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1130 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2200 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 178 pm
Covalent radius 192±7 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal close-packed
Dysprosium has a hexagonal close packed crystal structure
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic at 300 K
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly) 926 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 10.7 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (α, poly) 9.9 µm/(m·K)
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 2710 m·s−1
Young's modulus (α form) 61.4 GPa
Shear modulus (α form) 24.7 GPa
Bulk modulus (α form) 40.5 GPa
Poisson ratio (α form) 0.247
Vickers hairdness 540 MPa
Brinell hairdness 500 MPa
CAS registry nummer 7429-91-6
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o dysprosium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
154Dy syn 3.0×106 y α 2.947 150Gd
156Dy 0.06% >1×1018 y α 2.0108 152Gd
β+β+ 1.7579 156Gd
158Dy 0.10% 158Dy is stable wi 92 neutrons
160Dy 2.34% 160Dy is stable wi 94 neutrons
161Dy 18.91% 161Dy is stable wi 95 neutrons
162Dy 25.51% 162Dy is stable wi 96 neutrons
163Dy 24.90% 163Dy is stable wi 97 neutrons
164Dy 28.18% 164Dy is stable wi 98 neutrons
· r

Dysprosium is a chemical element wi the seembol Dy an atomic nummer 66. It is a rare yird element wi a metallic siller luster. Dysprosium is never foond in naitur as a free element, tho it is foond in various minerals, such as xenotime. Naiturally occurrin dysprosium is componed o 7 isotopes, the maist abundant o which is 164Dy.

Dysprosium wis first identified in 1886 bi Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, but wis nae isolatit in pur fairm till the development o ion exchange techniques in the 1950s. Dysprosium is uised for its heich thermal neutron absorption cross-section in makin control rods in nuclear reactors, for its heich magnetic susceptibility in data storage applications, an as a component o Terfenol-D. Soluble dysprosium salts are mildly toxic, while the insoluble salts are considered non-toxic.

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