Silicon

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Silicon
14Si
C

Si

Ge
aluminiumsiliconphosphorus
Appearance
crystalline, reflective wi bluish-tinged faces


Spectral lines o Silicon
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer silicon, Si, 14
Pronunciation /ˈsɪlɨkən/ SIL-ə-kən or /ˈsɪlɨkɒn/ SIL-ə-kon
Element category metalloid
Group, period, block 14, 3, p
Staundart atomic wicht 28.085(1)
Electron confeeguration [Ne] 3s2 3p2
2, 8, 4
Electron shells of silicon (2, 8, 4)
History
Prediction Antoine Lavoisier (1787)
Discovery Jöns Jacob Berzelius[1][2] (1823)
First isolation Jöns Jacob Berzelius (1823)
Named by Thomas Thomson (1817)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 2.3290 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 2.57 g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 1687 K, 1414 °C, 2577 °F
Boilin pynt 3538 K, 3265 °C, 5909 °F
Heat o fusion 50.21 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization 359 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 19.789 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1908 2102 2339 2636 3021 3537
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1[3] -1, -2, -3, -4
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 1.90 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 786.5 kJ·mol−1
2nt: 1577.1 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3231.6 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 111 pm
Covalent radius 111 pm
Van der Waals radius 210 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure diamond cubic
Silicon has a diamond cubic crystal structure
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic[4]
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 103[5]Ω·m
Thermal conductivity 149 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 2.6 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 8433 m·s−1
Young's modulus 130-188[6] GPa
Shear modulus 51-80[6] GPa
Bulk modulus 97.6[6] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.064 - 0.28[6]
Mohs hairdness 7
CAS registry nummer 7440-21-3
Band gap energy at 300 K 1.12 eV
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o silicon
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
28Si 92.23% 28Si is stable wi 14 neutrons
29Si 4.67% 29Si is stable wi 15 neutrons
30Si 3.1% 30Si is stable wi 16 neutrons
32Si trace 153 y β 13.020 32P
· r

Silicon, a tetravalent metalloid, is a chemical element wi the seembol Si an atomic nummer 14. It is less reactive nor its chemical analog carbon, the nonmetal directly abuin it in the periodic table, but mair reactive nor germanium, the metalloid directly ablo it in the table. Controversy aboot silicon's character dates tae its discovery; it wis first prepared an characterized in pure furm in 1823. In 1808, it wis given the name silicium (frae Laitin: silex, haird stane or flint), wi an -ium wird-endin tae suggest a metal, a name which the element retains in several non-Inglis leids. However, its final Inglis name, first suggestit in 1817, reflects the mair pheesically similar elements carbon an boron.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements: XII. Other elements isolated with the aid of potassium and sodium: beryllium, boron, silicon, and aluminum". Journal of Chemical Education 9 (8): 1386–1412. Bibcode:1932JChEd...9.1386W. doi:10.1021/ed009p1386. 
  2. Voronkov, M. G. (2007). "Silicon era". Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry 80 (12): 2190. doi:10.1134/S1070427207120397. 
  3. Ram, R. S. et al. (1998). "Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A2D–X2P Transition of SiH and SiD". J. Mol. Spectr. 190: 341–352. PMID 9668026. 
  4. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  5. Physical Properties of Silicon. New Semiconductor Materials. Characteristics and Properties. Ioffe Institute
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 [1] Hopcroft, et al., "What is the Young's Modulus of Silicon?" IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2010